In legal terms, general damages refers to any type of compensation that is sought in a lawsuit, but is not tied to any type of specific aspect of the suit itself. Sometimes referred to as a pain and suffering, this type of compensation is often tied to situations where it is somewhat difficult to determine the scope of the damages that are appropriate, or even if the situation warrants the awarding of general damages. With most court systems around the world that recognize the concept of compensation for such factors as emotional pain, loss of reputation, or other intangibles, it is up to the judge hearing the case to determine if general damages are appropriate.
Because the law systems in various countries are different, compensation that would be classified as general damages in one may not enjoy the same status in another nation. For example, some countries have specific legal statutes that relate to pain and suffering caused due to ongoing physical pain and injury, including disfigurement. Others would consider this to fall more into the category of general damages, and award compensation accordingly.
The assessment of general damages is based on the premise that the compensation being sought by the plaintiff in a lawsuit can be proven to have occurred, but is not related to any other class or category of damages that is defined in the laws of the land. If it is possible to prove to the satisfaction of the judge hearing the case that the plaintiff is indeed entitled to some sort of compensation, it is then the responsibility of the judge to determine what amount would be appropriate. While legal counsel for the plaintiff can certainly recommend a figure, and normally does so in the documents filed with the court, the judge is responsible for making the final determination. In most jurisdictions, the judge is bound by any guidelines put in place by the jurisdiction, as well as use his or her own judgment to determine the breadth and depth of the events surrounding the damages.
All too often, litigants assume they can claim general damages without any real proof that they have incurred some type of loss as a result of the actions of the defendant. There are those that have the mistaken idea that if the defendant created situations where the plaintiff was distressed, but otherwise was able to function normally, that general damages is still likely to apply. Unless evidence is presented to the judge that proves some amount of loss has occurred, the chances of being awarded general damages is extremely slim.