Disinfectants are substances which are capable of killing microorganisms. These substances are used to clean hospitals, clinics, and other medical facilities, along with bathrooms and kitchens. The goal behind the use of disinfectant is to reduce the number of microorganisms present on a surface like a counter or a floor, thereby decreasing the risk of contracting an infection. Many stores which stock housekeeping supplies carry household disinfectants, and medical suppliers carry stronger versions for use in medical facilities.
In most cases, a disinfectant cannot completely sterilize a surface, although it can eliminate a large number of microorganisms. Products which can sterilize must be used exactly as directed, and in a very controlled environment. Sanitizers, a closely related family of products, kill less microorganisms than disinfectants, but they are still more effective than simple soap and water. Antiseptics are products which are designed to be used on the skin, as for example in surgical preparation, while antibiotics are formulated for ingestion.
A variety of surfaces can be treated with disinfectants, including textiles, which can be washed in disinfectant solutions, along with floors, counters, and walls made from materials like wood, tile, glass, concrete, and so forth. The strength of a given disinfectant can be increased or decreased with the use of a diluting agent such as water; some disinfectants are designed to be diluted before use.
A wide variety of compounds can be used as disinfecting agents. Alcohols are quite common, as are oxidating agents like hydrogen peroxide, iodine, and bleach, along with phenolics. Many disinfectants are toxic to humans and pets, so they must be used carefully in order to avoid making someone sick, and disinfectants must also be used consistently and properly in order to be effective. Failure to follow protocol can result in leaving microorganisms behind in a clean environment which they can rapidly colonize.
In the home, using disinfectants can prevent the spread of disease between family members, and it can also reduce the risk of food borne illness in the kitchen. Because the pool of available microorganisms is relatively small, high-grade disinfectants are usually not necessary. At medical facilities, where large numbers of patients pass through with an assortment of infections, more serious disinfectants may be needed, especially since some visitors may have immune vulnerabilities.
Around the house, bleach is one of the best disinfectants available. It is highly effective, relatively easy to use, and safe when it is handled properly. It can be used to clean contaminated textiles as well as floors, sinks, and counters. It is also possible to purchase products designed specifically for disinfecting various household surfaces, although hospital-grade disinfectants are usually very expensive, and only available through specialty companies.