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The Globe Theater was a playhouse built in London in 1599, and famously used to perform the works of William Shakespeare and the theater company The Lord Chamberlain’s Men. The original building was destroyed by a fire in 1613, during a performance of Shakespeare’s Henry VIII. Two reconstructions of The Globe Theater have been made, one in the 17th century, and one completed in 1997, 750 ft (230 m) away from the original site.
James Burbage, an actor of the mid 16th Century, leased a large parcel of land in 1576 and built a playhouse called The Theatre. When the lease expired in 1598, the landlord planned to tear down the playhouse, claiming that the building belonged to him. Determined to continue operating, James Burbage, his son Richard Burbage, and the actors of The Lord Chamberlain’s Men spent a busy few days dismantling the theater beam by beam and transporting it to a warehouse on the banks of the Thames River. In early 1599, the building materials were ferried across the river and transformed into The Globe Theater.
No building plans exist for the original Globe Theater, but scholars have investigated its history for many years, and have a basic understanding of the building. It is believed to have been a near-circular, open air amphitheater that accommodated 3,000 patrons. The seating comprised of upper balconies with benches, for more wealthy patrons, and a standing-room only pit for those too poor to afford a seat.
A 43 ft wide (13.1 m) rectangular-shaped stage called an “apron” extended 27(8.2 m) feet into the audience, and is believed to have been about 5 ft (1.5 m) off the ground. The back of the stage was covered by a roof, called “the heavens”. The stage and the heavens came equipped with trapdoors, for magical entrances and exits. A balcony above the heavens was frequently used for musicians, but also could serve as an upper level to the stage.
During a 1613 performance of one of Shakespeare’s final plays,Henry VIII, a prop canon misfired, setting the roof ablaze. Comprised of mostly timber, The Globe was completely destroyed in the resulting fire. A second Globe Theater was built the following year on the same foundation, continuing operations until it was shut down in 1642 and destroyed in 1644.
Construction workers discovered the foundations of the Globe Theater in 1989, spiking interest in an accurate reconstruction of the theater. In 1993, construction on the new theater began under the direction of architect Theo Crosby. Using the research of theater historian John Orrell, the theater was built as close to the original specification as current building codes and modern convenience allows. The new playhouse, operating under the name Shakespeare’s Globe Theater, officially opened in 1997 with a production of Shakespeare’s Henry V. As the theater remains open-air, plays are held only during the summer and attract thousands of audience members each year.
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