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Thin film stress refers to an assortment of structural imperfections that result in the degradation or failure of microscopic layers of optical or conductive material. Any number of problems may occur when film is improperly produced or applied to a product. With layers sometimes only a few atoms thick, unplanned interactions between materials can have a pronounced effect on the performance of the film. In view of these many influences, several key types of thin film stress can occur. These include epitaxial stress, thermal stress, and growth stress, as well as other deformation processes.
The adoption of thin film technology challenges development of manufacturing and deposition processes to accommodate a wide assortment of products. Household and scientific technologies rely on thin film for a multitude of light wavelength applications, such as in the optical components in copiers, scanners, and thin film solar panels. Products can also benefit from thin film material enhancements, such as scratch or impact resistance. Thin film manipulates wavelength and conductance properties and expands the capabilities of numerous technologies. Its varied manufacturing and deposition challenges offer a moving target for innovation and refinement.
Thin film stress results from deposition issues, thermal processes, and laser technologies, among other causes. Generally, thin film is manufactured using methods that present unique characteristics, strengths, and shortcomings. Film can crack or void, and sometimes lifts from its substrate medium, while other processes might interfere with characteristics like resistance to moisture or oxidation.
Epitaxial thin film stress occurs when crystal lattices in a film line up perfectly against those in the substrate, or supporting material. A misfit stress results when the film and material become a single crystal. Thermal stress derives from temperature differences under the influence of heat expansion. This type of stress often occurs in equipment subject to temperature changes or extremes.
Growth thin film stress, otherwise known as intrinsic stress, malforms through inconsistencies during the deposition process. Stress typically arises when film thickness has been layered unevenly. Various states can occur through compression, tension, or relaxation differences in the coalescence of crystals.
Another type of thin film stress is known as surface stress. It occurs as a unit of force per unit length during deposition. This type stands in contrast with surface energy, which is the balance of temperature or chemical reaction on a unit area of surface. Grain boundaries can generate stress, since crystals exhibit limited flexibility in their interactions.
As a result of thin film stress, effects in general can alter the performance of thin film, deforming it inconsistently over its surface area. It's vital to understand and create desired stress variations within a thin film's given temperature or material properties. Such factors work together with other control processes, such as temperatures and gas flows, to create target accuracies in thin film production. Balancing these processes can minimize destructive interference and optimize the performance of this microscopic technology.
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