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Schools, like many other organizations, tend to follow standard organizational structures. They have a definite hierarchy and clear boundaries as to which employees or departments are responsible for various tasks involved in school operation. As with businesses and nonprofit organizations, the organizational structure of a school outlines who reports to whom and who is responsible for what. Schools typically have administrators who are responsible for whole-school operations and supervision and teachers of different subjects divided into teams based on grade levels or academic subject areas. They also have office workers and support staff to carry out various functions necessary to school operations.
The organizational structure of a school often involves members of the administration, licensed and unlicensed support staff and teachers. The administration often includes a principal who is responsible for the entire school and one or more assistant principals. Administrators handle supervision of students and teachers and make schoolwide decisions, sometimes after consulting with teachers and other staff members. A school’s administrative team is responsible for making and enforcing school rules and district-level policies, rules and procedures. Administrators also are charged with making sure teachers are effectively teaching students the required curriculum.
Elementary and middle schools usually have teachers divided into teams based on the grade level of students, although middle school teachers also may be divided into teams based on core academic areas, such as language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. High school teachers are normally in academic departments based on academic subject areas in core areas as well as departments such as business, foreign language and careers. Teams or departments of teachers often plan separately and together to ensure they are all teaching the required curriculum and serving their students to the best of their ability. Department heads or lead teachers are typically responsible for their team or department and serve as a liaison to school administrators and the lead teacher or curriculum facilitator, if any.
Schools typically have support staff members who are responsible for various departments and essential tasks. Office staff members are responsible for handling visitors, incoming calls and tasks such as daily attendance, as well as attending to the needs of teachers and students. The guidance department provides counseling to students is responsible for standardized testing and the dissemination of information regarding careers, health and safety. Cafeteria workers provide breakfast and lunch to students. Janitorial and maintenance workers also are an integral part of most schools.
In addition to the school-level organization, the organizational structure of a school typically involves administrators and other personnel who work at the school district level. There is often a district director or superintendent in charge of an entire school system, along with other district-level personnel. The superintendent and school district personnel usually work in conjunction with a school board. School systems are typically part of a state-level or province-level group of schools that have a state or province superintendent; many countries also have school leaders at the national level. The organizational structure of a school depends on its location and whether it is public, private or independent.