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The right basal ganglia is the right half of the collection brain nuclei that is responsible for movement control and dopamine production. Each part of the basal ganglia reside in the white matter of the cerebral cortex. Within the brain, there are two basal ganglia in both the right and left cerebrum. The two sides are almost identical both in form and function. Diseases and lesions that affect the right basal ganglia cause movement control issues, learning issues, and physiological response problems.
Information processed by the right basal ganglia is sent by the motor cortex. Once it is processed through each branch of the basal ganglia's nuclei, the information is sent back to the cortex through the thalamus. Neurotransmitters carry all information that is processed through each piece and function.
Dopamine produced by the left and right basal ganglia is part of the built-in reward system used by the brain to establish behavior patterns. Learning is often accomplished reactively through the use of the brain's internal response system. When the basal ganglia is damaged, this system begins to breakdown, and learning is adversely effected.
Lesions within any part of these ganglia substantially affect movement control. Movement of any part of the body is a fine tuned process that requires multiple systems working in perfect concert. Should any one of the parts be damaged, the whole system breaks down and unwanted movements and rigidity are produced. Movement control of the body is shared with cerebellum, and stable motion is only achieved when both are working together properly.
Many well-known diseases inflict their damage on the basal ganglia, such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's. Huntington's is a genetically inherited disease that causes limb flailing and continuous unwanted movement as the result of an impaired basal ganglia. Parkinson's also has movement issues, such as tremors and body freezing, and it also causes hunger to no longer properly trigger. Other afflictions that affect the basal ganglia include tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and some forms of schizophrenia.
The right basal ganglia is comprised of several different distinct nuclear regions. First, information stops at the caudate and putamen, and each receive all signals directly from the cerebral cortex. Once information stops there, it moves to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. Only the globus pallius sends information back to the cerebral cortext through the thalamus. The substantia nigra has two parts that control head and eye movements, and is the region that produces dopamine.
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