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The petrochemical industry is a group of companies that produce organic compounds from petroleum and other types of fossil fuel. Petrochemical products are used to create goods such as plastics, cosmetics, lubricants and paints. This is distinct from the petroleum industry, which produces the fuel used for energy, transportation and heating. Petrochemical production is a key component in almost all worldwide manufacturing processes. While the U.S. and Western Europe have been the largest centers of petrochemical production since the end of World War II, countries in the Middle East and Asia also have develop refining and processing centers to support their own manufacturing.
As the name implies, petrochemicals are most commonly produced from petroleum, although the compounds also can be refined from other fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. In some areas, petrochemicals also are produced from sugar cane, corn and other organic agricultural sources. This is often done in countries that have few sources of fossil fuel but do have space for large-scale agriculture. Petrochemical production takes up around 5 percent of the annual supply of oil and gas, prompting research into alternative renewable sources with less volatile pricing.
The production process usually begins in a refinery where raw fossil fuels are separated into the lighter components used for fuel and petrochemicals. The industry takes these refined products and processes them into various petrochemicals, such as ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene and synthetic gas. This process is known as cracking and can be performed with heat or chemical catalysts. These products are then used to manufacture goods for consumers and other industries.
Petrochemical production can be a hazardous process given the high temperatures and volatile compounds involved. In addition to the risk of chemical explosion and fire, these facilities also can contribute to air and water pollution. Many countries carefully regulate the construction and operation of petrochemical production facilities to mitigate the risks and damage done to the environment. In some areas, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the petrochemical industry also are studied to determine their effect on the global climate.
The establishment of the petrochemical industry marked a significant point in the development of human manufacturing technology. With the synthetic materials derived from petrochemicals, manufacturing was no longer completely reliant on natural substances such as rubber and cotton to create consumer goods such as tires and clothing. Many goods on the market contain synthetic materials derived from the petrochemical industry, either in the product itself or in the packaging.