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What Is the Function of Allegory in Painting?

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  • Written By: Mark Wollacott
  • Edited By: Lauren Fritsky
  • Last Modified Date: 12 October 2014
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The function of allegory in painting is to represent a chosen message using symbolic items or figures and metaphors. Allegory in the context of painted artworks is a direct substitution of one symbol with another, but one that alludes to the same message or story. Often the meaning is held outside of the painting through a deep study of the artwork itself.

The word ‘allegory’ comes from the classical Latin and Greek word ‘allegoria,’ meaning a ‘veiled language’ or something ‘figurative.’ Allegory is most widely-known as a literary device used in fiction. A classical allegory is Virgil’s “Eclogues,” while a more modern version is George Orwell’s “Animal Farm.” Sometimes critics find hints of allegory where the author or painter has no intention of providing such hints; an example of this is with J.R.R. Tolkien’s “Lord of the Rings,” which some see as an allegory for the atomic bomb and World War 2.

Cicero saw allegory as a means of coding letters. Quintilian, meanwhile, believed there were two types of allegory. First, there was the personal or historical allegory using metaphors, and secondly, there was wit and sarcasm. Quintilian believed allegories that are too vague to discern were a blemish on art and literature.

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Medieval painters and writers believed there were four basic functions for allegory in painting and literature; all revolved around the bible. First, there was the literal representation that had no hidden meaning or subtext. Second, there were typographical allegories that linked the Old Testament with the New. Third, there were moral allegories that instructed present day conduct. Finally, there were anagogical allegories that looked to future events such as hell, heaven and the last judgment.

Dutch painter Jan Vermeer is a good example of the use of allegory in painting. His work entitled “The Allegory of Painting” features three allegories, each serving a number of functions. First, he represents inspiration and muses through the presence of Clio. Second, he produces an allegory of the history of the Netherlands and Belgium by introducing a crease between them on the map. This shows the difference between free and Protestant Netherlands and the Catholic, but dominated, Belgium. Finally, he connects present-day artists with those of the past by depicting himself wearing anachronistic clothing.

Agnolo Bronzino is another example of the use of allegory in painting. One good example is his 1546 piece called “Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time.” Some of the allegories are easy to discern such as Father Time, Cupid and Venus. Others, like the old lady tearing at her hair, are open to discussion.

Sandro Botticelli proved with his “Primavera” in 1482 that an allegory in painting can work on multiple levels. The painting is overtly an allegory about spring, and then more subtly, it is about how the world became more fertile. The deep subtext of the painting appears to revolve around neoplatonic love, as shown by the Graces appearing to renounce Zephyrus.

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discographer
Post 3

I think all forms of art-- be it a literary work or a painting -- aims to send some kind of message. I personally think that allegory came about during times of political oppression when free speech did not exist or was dangerous. So people started using literary devices like allegory, symbolism and metaphors to express themselves without being overt about it.

Allegory in a painting makes sense when it is interpreted according to the time period and the social, political and religious issues that were prevalent at the time. If not, it's difficult to see and understand the allegory and what the artist was trying to get across. So in this sense, allegory in painting, or anything else, is a form of expression, it's a form of free speech.

candyquilt
Post 2

@ddljohn-- I'm no expert on allergory but as far as I understand, allegory is a matter of interpretation. The artist may leave hints about it, but it's really an individualistic exercise.

With well known pieces of work, the allegories become agreed upon by many people because so many people study and interpret them. But with a less well known piece of work, one may interpret an allegory different than other. So what I'm trying to say is that there is no right or wrong answer.

ddljohn
Post 1

I didn't know until now that allegory can be used in painting. I always thought of allegory as a literary device. It's easy for words or concepts to symbolize other things in writing. But I'm not sure how it is done in painting. Won't it be confusing? Does the painter explain the allegory or is it left to people's interpretation?

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