Although the words "posterior" and "anterior" may occur most frequently in medical terms, we can find them (or their derivatives) in every day speech.
The phrase "up the ante," which is used in context with gambling (most often poker), refers to increasing the original (or first) bet. This is used more commonly to mean increasing what is at stake in an uncertain situation.
"Posterior" itself is still used as a more polite and formal way of referring to a person's buttocks. And the original root, "post" is still a common addition to many words (such as postdate, postnatal) to mean after a fact or action.