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What Is Term of Office?

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  • Written By: Angela Farrer
  • Edited By: W. Everett
  • Last Modified Date: 21 November 2016
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A term of office is a designated number of years that political officials serve in their elected positions. These term limits are normally written into the constitution of a given country. Elected leaders in democratic countries serve limited terms in office in order to prevent imbalances of power. Depending on the established laws of nations, legislative officials may serve terms of two, four, or six years. Once a term of office is finished, leaders are able to run for re-election if they have not exhausted the maximum number of terms they are allowed to serve.

Nations that elect leaders from two or more different political parties limit the length of political terms to ensure that a representative government will not become too one-sided. A balanced number of leaders with diverse ideologies is considered the best option for representing the interests of as many citizens as possible. Many elected officials who fail to address their constituents' concerns find themselves serving only one term of office. This practice is frequently considered a hallmark of a democratic society.

The typical presidential term of office is four years in many countries. Some governments hold both their presidential and legislative elections in the same year, while others stagger them every other year. A few nations allow the general populace to elect their president directly, although many have groups of high-ranking officials who choose this leader based on certain numbers of popular votes.

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A judge's term of office is often structured differently than that of a legislator or president. Some of the highest-ranking judges serve life terms until they decide they are ready for retirement. Lower-level judges at the national level can sometimes have term limits of 10 to 15 years, depending on different nations' constitutions. Judges at the state or regional level frequently serve terms of office similar to those of presidents or governors.

State or provincial governors usually have their terms of office determined by local rather than national laws. Many of them serve terms of four years while others may be limited to only two years. Just as with democratic governments at the national level, state and regional constitutions normally specify these term limits for their elected leaders. Changes to terms of office can normally be done only through a proposed law approved by popular vote.

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