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What Is Phenolic?

An old telephone made out of Bakelite, a phenolic resin.
Phenolic resins are used to make billiard balls.
Phenolic resin mixed with wood fibers creates Bakelite, which was used to make numerous household objects, such as radios.
Phenols are naturally found in wine, with white wines having a lower phenolic content than reds.
Phenols are found in capsaicin, which gives chili peppers their heat.
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  • Originally Written By: Brendan McGuigan
  • Revised By: Michelle Arevalo
  • Edited By: Niki Foster
  • Last Modified Date: 24 September 2014
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The term "phenolic" is used to refer to a few different substances made with phenol, an organic compound. It can describe a type of resin used to create various consumer items and is the name given to a class of plant-based chemical compounds. It can also refer to carbolic acid, an organic material that has been used in various medical and cleaning products.

Resin

Phenolic resin is made by combining phenol and an aldehyde. When these organic compounds are mixed, and both pressure and heat are applied, it causes polymerization, which is a chemical reaction that can be used to mold solids. Since it is both versatile and durable, this resin is used to make a wide variety of consumer and industrial products.

A range of goods, from billiard balls to kitchen gadgets, and automotive parts to construction adhesives, are made with phenolic resins. The material is often used to create consumer fittings, such as the plugs on electronic devices, handles for pots and pans, and screw-tops on most bottles. Its affordability and the ease with which it is molded can make it an ideal choice for many applications.

Bakelite®

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Resin may be made by mixing simple phenol with any number of aldehydes, but the combination made with formaldehyde — known as phenolic formaldehyde resin (PF) — is the most widely used. It was the first synthesized resin, and was marketed under the brand name Bakelite®. Soon after, because it was cheap to make and admired for its beauty, this substance was used to make many household objects, including jewelry, radios, musical instrument components, and cameras. While the heyday of items made with it was from 1920 to 1940, this malleable material is still used to make board game pieces, gun parts, and even heat shields on rockets.

Use as a Binder and Insulator

The combination of phenol and formaldehyde is also frequently used as an agent to bind together composite woods, including chipboard and plywood. While it can be somewhat brittle when used in this way, it produces very little smoke if it catches on fire, and, at high grades, can resist temperatures up to 370°F (185°C). In construction, phenolic foam made from these compounds is often used as insulation, usually in the form of rigid sheets. This type of insulation is often chosen for its ease of installation, affordability, and thermal mass — it's ability to moderate temperature fluctuations.

As a Laminate

Sheets of paper, glass fabric, and certain kinds of cloth, like linen and cotton, can be treated with phenolic resin, then pressed and heated to form hard, laminated plastic sheets. This composite laminate is heat-resistant, strong, and waterproof. The flat plates are easily shaped or carved and frequently used on tables, counter tops, and even as pick guards on guitars.

Phenols in Organic Chemistry

Any member within the class of organic phenols may be termed a phenolic compound. Compounds in this class are simple hydrocarbon groups, similar to alcohols. Phenolics are varied and found in a range of natural things — from capsaicin, the heat agent in chili peppers, to neurotransmitters in the brain, like dopamine.

Natural Compounds in Plant Antioxidants

Phenols are found in many plants, including fruits and vegetables. While the study of these substances is ongoing, it is known that their antioxidant properties — found in wine, berries, and many types of tea — may protect cells from damage and death. These substances are also found in other foods, such as olive oil, and in certain dietary nutrients, like vitamin E.

Carbolic Acid

Carbolic acid is another name for phenol or phenic acid, and is a natural substance that is solid, white, and crystalline. It was originally derived from coal tar, and has been used in soaps, cosmetics, and cleaning agents. Through the 19th and part of the 20th centuries, this mild acid was used medicinally, particularly as an antiseptic and topical anesthetic in and around the mouth. It is toxic, however, and can cause chemical burns to the skin, so its use has been largely discontinued in favor of safer alternatives.

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anon353622
Post 9

Phenol is an ecological weapon which slowly kills plants, animals and people, especially in close, poorly ventilated rooms or cars. Phenol is highly toxic and cancerogenic. Life expectancy goes down, and overall health since birth goes down too. The more we use phenol, than more we are all becoming sick and dying and than more we all need long term medical care and then our premiums and spending on doctors, medications and insurance will increase.

anon140369
Post 8

I am trying to understand the difference in use between a phenolic epoxy or a quartz made with epoxy as a binder. The application is a dark room for a university. The client has specified our material for the countertops in the dark room - quartz countertop made with an epoxy resin - very durable but we are unsure of the reaction with silver nitrate.

Does a phenolic epoxy release VOCs and would it hold up to silver nitrate?

anon108177
Post 7

Is phenolic plywood termite proof?

anon95696
Post 6

Can moldings made of phenolic be recycled?

anon36309
Post 5

Can Phenolic sheets be glued together or laminated and not come apart?

anon28001
Post 4

Is phenolic resistant to sunlight?

jshankar
Post 3

can phenolic sheets be used for food contact application for pharma industry? if not, pls give reasons.

Cheryll
Post 2

I recently discovered that the utensils I use on my non-stick pots and pans are "phenolic". I am concerned about their safety, knowing that they are made with formaldehyde, and also knowing that they are a kind of plastic. Are they safe to use with food, and do they give off toxins if they are heated with the food?

Thank you.

Warenm
Post 1

I have heard that Phenolic sheet is popular in the transport industry for fire resistant interior panels For trains buses ships etc. Can you tell me if this is so and what type of phenolic product this would be and who the major players in the industry are.

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