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Simply put, kosher chocolate is chocolate that meets the requirements of kashrut, the Jewish law on food. It may be difficult to easily identify kosher chocolate, unless the manufacturer specifically states and labels the product. The actual ingredients contained in chocolate are less of a concern than the processing of the chocolate. This is because even foods that meet the requirements of kashrut are considered non-kosher when processed using equipment that has come into contact with non-kosher foods or when the process itself violates kashrut.
The requirements of kashrut state that meat and dairy are to be kept separate and not eaten together. Similarly, equipment used to process and prepare dairy and meat must also be kept separate. In a manufacturing facility, it is entirely possible that the same equipment may be used to process a product containing animal fat and then one containing dairy fat. This process would actually be non-kosher. Thus, kosher chocolate has to not only contain kosher ingredients, but also be processed in a kosher manner.
Both large and small chocolate manufacturers have certified products to include kosher chocolate. The Hershey Company identifies its Hershey® chocolate bar as kosher chocolate. This means that both the ingredients and the manufacturing process have been identified to contain no violations according to kashrut.
Those who are concerned with only consuming kosher foods may wish to familiarize themselves with the kosher symbols used on food product labels. There are several different symbols, each placed on the label by the representing organization that oversees the process for any given prepared product. Further, if violation of kashrut is a concern, you may choose to have your rabbi provide you with a list of acceptable products or take your product directly to the rabbi for inspection.
Kosher chocolate is not difficult to find, and in fact, may be easier to attain than other kosher sweets. Many manufacturers provide some way of verifying if their product is kosher. In the age of mass produced, processed foods, it is not always easy for those following a kosher diet to quickly ascertain if a product is acceptable, but fortunately kosher chocolate is not exceptionally difficult to come by.