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Jatropha biofuel is a vegetable oil that can be obtained from a woody shrub known as jatropha curcas. The jatropha plant, which originated in Africa, is able to grow in the sort of marginal soil that many other crops can not. This can lead to greater sustainability and allow this potential fuel source to not compete for land or resources with food crops. Several times more jatropha biofuel may be produced in the same amount of space as other common biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans. The wild form of the plant produces relatively uneven harvests, though a domesticated version may prove more reliable.
There are a number of factors that make jatropha an attractive source of biofuel, though there are some concerns as well. The plant grows a type of oilseed that can be crushed to produce vegetable oil. This oil can then undergo a process that allows it to be used in normal diesel engines in the place of petrodiesel or various non-sustainable biodiesels. There is another byproduct of pressing oil from jatropha seeds, which is known as press cake. This may be used as a fertilizer or burned in electricity plants.
One of the main reasons that jatropha biofuel is attractive is that the plants can grow in poor soil conditions. These marginal lands are areas that are unsuitable to other types of agriculture for a variety of reasons. Jatropha was originally considered to be a noxious weed due to its ability to grow almost anywhere. This ability may allow it to provide sustainable biofuel without competing for land with food crops. There are concerns about jatropha crops competing for irrigation with food crops, though this can be avoided by growing the jatropha in areas with plentiful rainfall.
The seeds and leaves of jatropha plants are toxic, so great care must be taken when handling and processing them. Since making jatropha biofuel involves pressing oil from the seeds, special equipment can be required to prevent operators from being exposed to poisonous fumes. Many of the dangers related to the toxicity of the jatropha plant can be avoided through careful handling, though there are often additional costs involved.
Since the jatropha plant is wild, a great deal of cost can be involved in creating a commercially viable crop. Wild jatropha are not uniform in growth patterns or yields, so harvesting the seeds is a labor intensive process that must be performed manually. Domestication can create a plant that yields a more predictable amount of jatropha biofuel, though this is a lengthy and expensive process.