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Hematuria syndrome is a condition in which there is blood in the urine. Normally considered a benign, temporary condition, hematuria may also indicate of a more serious condition if there are persistent symptoms that worsen. Treatment for hematuria syndrome depends on the underlying cause of the symptoms and may include the use of antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery in the presence of a chronic disease.
In most cases, the presence of a hematuria is due to infection or injury. Some instances of hematuria occur as the result of strenuous activity or the regular use of medications that affect the blood's ability to coagulate. Regardless of the cause, with a hematuria, blood enters the urine as it passes through the urinary tract on its way to be expelled as waste. An individual may develop a hematuria and have no knowledge that anything is wrong since the blood may be invisible to the bare eye. In other cases, the presence of blood may cause an obvious discoloration of the urine, necessitating concern and a visit to the doctor.
A diagnosis of hematuria syndrome may be made following a physical examination and a battery of diagnostic tests. Symptomatic individuals may undergo a urinalysis to evaluate the content of their urine and to check for infection or disease. Additionally, imaging tests, including an ultrasound, may be used to assess the condition and functionality of the urinary tract, specifically the bladder and kidneys.
Those who develop a microscopic hematuria generally remain asymptomatic, meaning they experience no discernible symptoms. Individuals who become symptomatic will usually notice that their urine is discolored, but they experience no discomfort. It is generally only in the presence of a chronic condition that additional symptoms may develop, such as with Alport syndrome. Other conditions, such as loin pain-hematuria syndrome, can occur with abdominal and pelvic discomfort.
Treatment for hematuria syndrome is usually centered on alleviating the secondary condition causing the symptoms. In the presence of infection, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI), an antibiotic is generally given for several days, during which time the urine discoloration will subside entirely. More complex conditions, such as kidney stones, may necessitate surgery. Chronic and inherited conditions that trigger the development of hematuria syndrome often require more extensive therapies that may include the use of medication, blood transfusion, or organ transplantation.