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Gynecological surgery is a term used to describe any type of surgical procedure that involves the female reproductive system. The female reproductive system consists of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, as well as the cervix and vagina. Some of the most common types of gynecological surgery are hysterectomy, episiotomy, and tubal ligation. These procedures may be performed because of illness, disease, or as an elective procedure, depending on the exact type of gynecological surgery.
A hysterectomy is a type of gynecological surgery in which the uterus is removed. The uterus may need to be removed for a variety of reasons, including cancer, endometriosis, or the presence of uterine fibroids. Once the uterus is removed, there is no possibility that the woman will be able to get pregnant. With the uterus gone, there will not be any more menstrual periods. In some cases, hormone therapy may be needed following a hysterectomy.
An episiotomy is a type of gynecological surgery that is sometimes performed during a vaginal childbirth. In this procedure, an incision is made between the vagina and the rectum in order to allow the baby to be born without tearing the delicate tissues in the vaginal area. A local anesthetic is used so that the woman feels only a little pressure during the procedure. Stitches are used in order to close the incision after the baby is born.
Gynecological surgery may involve procedures known as an oophorectomy or a cystectomy. In an oophorectomy, one or both of the ovaries are removed. This type of surgery may be performed if cysts are present or if the patient has ovarian cancer. A cystectomy is a similar procedure, except that only a portion of the ovary is removed. Hormone therapy may be needed following either of these procedures, although it is more likely to become necessary if both ovaries are completely removed.
Tubal ligation is a form of gynecological surgery designed to be a permanent form of birth control. During this surgery, the fallopian tubes are cut or otherwise blocked so that sperm are not able to reach the egg during sexual intercourse. This is considered to be a permanent form of female sterilization, so a woman should be certain that she does not wish to have another child before consenting to this type of surgery. In some cases, this procedure can be reversed later if the woman changes her mind, but reversal surgery often fails.