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What is Galactosamine?

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  • Written By: S. Anderson
  • Edited By: A. Joseph
  • Last Modified Date: 12 November 2016
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Galactosamine is a carbohydrate, or more specifically, an amino sugar. The name is derived from the words "galactose," which is a monosaccharide sugar, and "amine." Galactosamine is therefore an amino derivative of the sugar galactose. This amino sugar is a major component of glycoproteins, an essential part of living cells. Galactosamine can also be found in small amounts in soil.

Humans and animals do not derive galactosamine from the diet; rather it is synthesized within the body. Galactosamine is a hexosamine, formed when an amino group replaces one of the hydroxy groups of a six-carbon sugar, or hexose. Galactosamine is synthesized in the body from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or glucosamine, and is most often found in the form N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine. This form is also referred to as N-Acetylgalactosamine.

Galactosamine is a constituent of hyaluronic acid, a potent water-binding agent. Hyaluronic acid is found in many types of tissues, including brain, skin and connective tissues. It acts as a lubricating agent in the synovial fluid of joints and in connective tissue. In the eye, hyaluronic acid acts as a lubricating agent in the vitreous humor. Medicine makes use of hyaluronic acid in wound or burn dressings, during cataract or corneal transplantation surgery, as an osteoarthritis treatment and as a plastic surgery aid.

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One of the components of chondroitin sulfate is galactosamine. Chondroitin is found in the cornea, lung tissue, bone, blood vessels and connective tissue. It provides both strength and elasticity to cartilage in joints. Chondroitin also helps to absorb water into the connective tissue. As a supplement, chondroitin might help to reduce the pain and swelling of arthritis.

Galactosamine is an element of human glycoproteins. This includes the glycoprotein hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone (LH). Glycoproteins are found in immunoglobulins, the infection-fighting proteins also known as antibodies. Proteins found in plasma, the extracellular fluid surrounding cells, are made of glycoproteins. Galactosamine is also a component of the human B-type blood cell.

Some bacterial and fungal cell walls contain galactosamine. The gram-negative enterobacteria, including salmonella and Escherichia coli, contain galactosamine. In these bacteria, it is an important element of the cell wall polysaccharides.

A few amino sugars, including galactosamine, have been shown to kill tumors in the laboratory. It is unlikely to be used in cancer therapy, however. D-galactosamine is a hepatotoxic, or liver-damaging, agent. Researchers studying animal models of liver failure sometimes use D-galactosamine to induce liver damage. Galactosamine is also helpful for researchers studying agents that might protect the liver from damage.

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amysamp
Post 2

@tolleranza - Whew! I don't know about you but that was hard to follow, with the large words that all seemed to start with glucosa, but if your interpretation was correct that you either take glucosamine or chondroitin to get galactosamine, it seems like you are correct based on the supplements I have seen.

I have seen both chondroitin and glucosamine supplements advertised as joint pain relievers or for arthritis. However, it does not seem as though it is as simple as this as the supplements I have read about seem to come with warnings.

So I suggest research accordingly for these supplements!

tolleranza
Post 1

How interesting that this amino sugar can kill tumors but also the liver! I hope they can use that information in the future to find a way for it to be used for tumor treatment without it affecting the liver in such a dramatic way.

So basically to get the lubricating affects of galactosamine we have to take glucosamine because galactosamine is made in the body from glucosamine or we can take chondroitin because it has galactosamine?

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