Corneal dystrophy is a condition which causes the cornea, the clear lens which covers the eye, to cloud, causing obscured vision. A number of ophthalmological conditions can cause corneal dystrophy, with one of the most common example being Fuchs' Dystrophy, an inherited disease of the cornea. The best treatment for corneal dystrophy is usually a cornea transplant, in which the damaged cornea is replaced with a donor cornea from a cadaver.
The cornea is critical to vision. This thin lens has five layers: the surface epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's layer, and endothelium. In someone with corneal dystrophy, damage occurs to one or more of these layers, causing it to thicken and cloud. As the damage progresses, the patient starts to experience a variety of vision problems, which can include sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and eventual blindness.
This condition usually has a slow onset. Close examination of the cornea can reveal clouding, spots, or lines in the damaged areas. Usually people experience glare and sensitivity to light in the earliest stages of corneal dystrophy, with problems being especially pronounced in the morning, and over time they develop more severe vision problems. They can also experience soreness and irritation of the eye, caused by dead cells which are not being flushed from the cornea as they normally would be.
In some cases, the cornea can actually ulcerate, which can contribute to the development of an infection. Corneal dystrophy generally appears in both eyes, although the severity can vary between the eyes. Most people end up seeking treatment for this condition, because the decline in vision quality becomes too frustrating or too dangerous.
Early stages of corneal dystrophy can be managed with eyedrops and medications which are designed to slow the degeneration of the cornea and keep the patient comfortable. Eventually, however, a corneal transplant will usually be required. In order to receive a transplant, the patient must be placed on the list of people needing placements, something which is best done as early as possible. In addition, he or she may have to satisfy certain requirements mandated by a transplant review committee to confirm that the transplant is necessary and appropriate.
In addition to occurring in humans, this condition is also common in dogs, with some breeds being more prone to developing it than others. A veterinarian can provide an appropriate course of treatment for a dog afflicted with corneal dystrophy; surgery is usually not necessary to treat this condition in dogs.