I have had good results with tomatoes planted in containers. I make sure and buy the type that are suitable for container or patio gardening.
They will grow more rounded like a bush than tall like a regular plant. You also don't need to worry about staking them. One year I had one tomato plant like this and I had more than enough fresh tomatoes for us from just than one plant.
There are other vegetable plants that you can buy that are suited for patio gardening. You will need to make sure they get adequate sun though.