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A normal uterus is one which is found upon examination to be the proper size with no obstructions, growths, or internal bleeding. The shape of a normal uterus is similar to a funnel or an upside-down pear with a smaller area at the bottom connecting to the cervix and a round upper portion. A uterus should also be comprised of smooth muscle with a hollow center. Any variation of this could be considered abnormal.
The uterus is very elastic and is able to stretch to several times its normal size during pregnancy. It also rises higher into the body during this time to enable the baby to grow larger. During labor and delivery, the uterine muscles should be able to properly contract and relax in order to move the baby downward and open the cervix. The uterus is sometimes referred to as the womb.
There are various maladies which can affect the female uterus. A normal uterus is smooth and roughly the size of a fist. One of the most common causes of irregularities are growths inside the uterine wall. These growths are generally benign, although sometimes they may be uterine cancer. Symptoms of growths may include abdominal pain and bleeding between periods, although many women have no symptoms at all.
In many cases, abnormalities in the uterus are discovered upon an exam. Ultrasound is commonly used to examine the uterus and ovaries. Women may have these tests done in response to troubling symptoms or other suspicions that there may be a problem.
A normal uterus should also not be too large and should have a hollow section in the center surrounded by muscular tissue. Occasionally a woman may have a misshapen uterus due to birth defects, which may make having children difficult. In many cases a woman who does not have a normal uterus will have no symptoms or indications until she has trouble conceiving a child.
The treatment for an abnormal uterus will depend on the cause. If a growth is causing changes, it may be removed surgically, although smaller cysts often go away without treatment. A thickening of the uterine lining which doesn't go away as it normally would during menstruation may also cause issues in some women. It is generally caused by hormonal problems. This lining may have to be removed.