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Congestion pricing is a system which reduces traffic congestion during peak travel times. This system involves charging commuters of a particular transport network surcharges during periods of peak congestion. Travel during rush hour can then be shifted to other modes of transportation or to less busy times. This strategy allows for better management of congestion of the roads. When even a small fraction of the usual number of vehicles are removed from roads, traffic can flow much more efficiently.
The economic rationale behind congestion pricing is the theory that, at a price of zero, demand exceeds supply. If a good or service is available at no charge, people have a tendency to want more of it than they would if they had to pay. Using a service or good for free can contribute to misuse and waste. Congestion pricing is therefore based on the simple economic concept of charging a price for a good or service that will make it more valuable for its users. It is a method of using the power of the market to reduce the pollution and waste associated with traffic congestion.
This shortage of supply is rectified by charging an equilibrium price. An equilibrium price is the market price at which the supply of an item is equal to the amount demanded. Charges are implemented on drivers with increased surcharges during peak travel times to make commuters more aware of the congestion they contribute. Similar techniques are used in other industries, and explain the variation in telephone and electricity rates, for example.
Many cities worldwide, including some in the United States, have already successfully implemented this method of reducing traffic during peak hours. Congestion pricing programs can also use money collected to improve transportation systems, including public transit and bicycling facilities. This gives commuters other transportation options that can ultimately balance the transportation load.
Although congestion pricing is widely accepted, there are critics who suggest the pricing is not equitable and places an economic burden on neighboring communities. In addition, critics have suggested that this pricing method has a negative effect on neighboring retail businesses and on the economic health of the community. They argue that congestion pricing is simply another tax.
Despite its criticism, supporters of congestion pricing say that this method actually saves taxpayers money. Some transportation ministries estimate that traffic delays and congestion actually cost people money in lost wages and gas. Peak-hour charges could help eliminate this waste. Literature suggests that most economists agree that road pricing is an economically effective method of reducing congestion.