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What is Celluloid?

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  • Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 24 July 2014
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Celluloid is a material made by plasticizing nitrocellulose with the assistance of camphor. This substance was first invented in the 1800s as a replacement for ivory and bone, and its uses later greatly expanded, perhaps most notably into the world of film. By the 1950s, however, the disadvantages of celluloid had led to a general decline in the market for the material, and today it can be challenging to find.

Nitrocellulose is made by exposing cellulose to a nitrating agent. When plasticized with camphor, the resulting material is very easy to mold, shape, and handle. However, it has a very distinct disadvantage: it is highly flammable. Celluloid is so flammable that it will continue to burn even when dunked in water, making it a serious fire hazard, as one might imagine. It is also not very light stable, decaying rapidly when exposed to light.

Although flammable, celluloid is also extremely durable, making it useful for a wide range of tasks. In corsets, for example, the material could help hold a form without rusting, as was the case with metal stays, and the flexibility of celluloid also allowed for some freedom of movement on the part of the wearer. Celluloid was even briefly used to make very durable clothes, although a few unfortunate accidents quickly put a stop to this practice.

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This substance was first marketed as Parkesine and later as Xylonite. The term “celluloid” was originally a trademark, taken out in 1869, but thanks to trademark dilution, it came to be used more generally to refer to plasticized nitrocellulose, rather than to a specific brand of this product. Originally, celluloid was used to make things like stays for corsets, pool balls, and a variety of other objects once made from bone; when its potential as photographic film was realized, celluloid production took off in a major way.

Well into the 1940s, films were produced on celluloid. At the time, this turned out to be quite dangerous, as projection room fires started easily and were hard to put out. In retrospect, the widespread use of celluloid was also a great shame, because the film yellows and cracks with time, and as a result, many great films have been lost to history. Today, acetate and polyester are used to make film, but celluloid still has an iconic place in the film world, thanks to its role in early film production.

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Discuss this Article

anon209201
Post 5

Take a ping-pong ball which is made of celluloid. Set it on fire. Dunk it in water. Watch it extinguish immediately.

nony
Post 4

@allenJo - Yeah, I’ve seen those effects. I’m not a big fan of those kinds of special effects. The problem is, just about everyone does it, so it no longer appears original.

My opinion is that if you want your movie to look like film, shoot it on film. Many people use Super 8; it’s the most affordable option.

I don’t know if it’s shot on celluloid or the new stuff that the article talks about but it doesn’t matter either way. The end result will look like film, because it is film.

allenJo
Post 3

Vintage celluloid may not have been the best medium for storytelling, but I think its defects have turned into advantages in the eyes of many young independent film makers.

Today there is a big emphasis on achieving the “film look” in digital video production. While this usually involves a number of techniques, from lighting to filters and such, it also includes some post editing effects as well.

One of the most popular methods is to create an old film look with scratches and shakes, just like early celluloid films. Sometimes people reduce the video to black and white and give it an old film or sepia look.

It’s kind of cheesy in some respects, but it does work, and makes the end result look less like video at the very least.

anon34236
Post 2

Of course not if it is plastic. No more magnetic than a plastic soda bottle.

deannabeth00
Post 1

Is celluloid magnetic?

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