I know that many runners perform cardiovascular interval training in order to gain aerobic capacity.
They will often engage in a series of anaerobic and aerobic intervals. The anaerobic cardiovascular circuit training methods might include performing one or two minute of short sprints, running as fast as possible followed by a three to four minutes of a recovery jog.
The benefits of cardiovascular training like this allows the heart to expand and become more efficient. In addition, it will boost your endurance level so that you can engage in more intense workouts.
Elite athletes should only conduct anaerobic exercises like sprints because it could be dangerous if you are used to that level of intensity.