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An embedded derivative is a provision in a contract that modifies the cash flow of a contract by making it dependent on some underlying measurement. Like traditional derivatives, embedded derivatives can be based on a variety of instruments, from common stock to exchange rates and interest rates. Combining derivatives with traditional contracts, or embedding derivatives, changes the way that risk is distributed among the parties to the contracts.
A derivative is any financial instrument whose value depends on an underlying asset, price or index. An embedded derivative is the same as a traditional derivative; its placement, however, is different. Traditional derivatives stand alone and are traded independently. Embedded derivatives are incorporated into a contract, called the host contract. Together, the host contract and the embedded derivative form an entity known as a hybrid instrument.
The embedded derivative modifies the host contract by changing the cash flow that would otherwise be promised by the contract. For example, when you take out a loan, you agree to repay the funds plus interest. When you enter this contract, the lender worries that interest rates will go up, but your rate will be locked in at a lower rate. He can modify the loan agreement by embedding a derivative, so that interest payments depend on another measurement. They could, for example, be adjusted according to a benchmark interest rate or a stock index.
Embedded derivatives are found in many types of contracts. They are frequently used in leases and insurance contracts. Preferred stock and convertible bonds, or bonds which can be exchanged for stock, also host embedded derivatives. The specific accounting principles for embedded derivatives are complicated, but the basic concepts are that the embedded derivative must be accounted at fair value and that it should only be accounted separately from the host contract if it could stand alone as a traditional derivative.
A contract with an embedded derivative can substitute for another type of risk management; for example, some companies conduct business in more than one currency. By paying production costs in one currency and selling the product in another, they bear the risk of adverse fluctuations in the interest rate. Often, these companies participate in foreign exchange futures trading to hedge the risk they face. Another option is to embed the foreign exchange future into the sales contract. This differs from the original strategy in that the buyer now faces the risk, where a third party traded stand-alone futures with the corporation.
This example illustrates the primary function of embedded derivatives: to transfer risk. They shift the terms of a traditional contract so that the party that would have been subjected to the risk associated with, for example, interest rates or exchange rates, is shielded, while the other party is exposed. Embedded derivatives are used to convince investors to participate in otherwise unattractive contracts by making the contracts less risky.
Sure, an embedded derivative sounds like a great idea for the lender or seller, but not so great for the borrower or buyer.
A fixed-rate loan is always the best insurance that your interest rate will be locked in for the life of the loan, regardless of the movement in stock prices or interest rates.
Although variable-rate loans, which can be structured to allow interest to fluctuate based on several factors, appear less costly than fixed-rate loans, the risk that comes with changes in interest rates over a 15-year or 30-year period can be great.