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A weanling is a young horse that no longer suckles from its mother, but is less than one year old. A nursing foal is known as a suckling, while a foal one year of age is known as a yearling. Foals are typically weaned, or separated from their mothers, at about three months of age. Once weaned, foals must generally be fed a nutritious diet that meets the needs of their rapidly growing bodies, and they must also continue to follow the training program established before weaning occurred. Weanling foals often remain playful and can be disobedient, and they can usually benefit from the company of a mature, well-behaved horse that is not their mother.
A foal becomes a weanling once it is taken away from its mother. While the average foal is weaned at about three months of age, this may not be the appropriate weaning time for all foals. Both the mare's and foal's general states of health, as well as the foal's rate of growth, determine when the foal should be weaned. It's important that foals be allowed to remain with their mothers for an adequate length of time, because weaning too soon can create poor socialization and behavior problems as the horse grows older. Many suckling foals are weaned at four months of age and some are weaned as late as six months of age.
Weanling horses no longer feed by suckling from their mothers, so they need to be fed a healthy, nutritious diet. Foals that have not yet been weaned should typically be allowed access to their mother's food, to help them become accustomed to the idea of feeding themselves. These foals will generally adjust more readily to weaning, with less stress. Sudden weaning is more likely to emotionally traumatize foals, leading to poor socialization and behavioral problems, so weaning should be done as gradually as possible. The company of other, older horses can help weanling foals cope with the absence of their mothers.
Growing foals will need just the right balance of food to thrive. A combination of feed, grass, and hay, containing 30 to 35 percent fiber and 10 to 16 percent protein, should be provided to the weanling foal. The foal should generally be allowed to forage at least half of its food from the pasture.
Weanling horses will usually need to be trained to accept discipline and handling. Training may begin when the foal is still a suckling, but is often best suspended for a week or two after weaning, to allow the foal to recover from the trauma of that event. Training and handling sessions should be short, since weanling foals often have short attention spans and can misbehave when bored. Weanling foals should be trained to allow themselves to be groomed properly, and they may also be trained for riding and other purposes.
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