Medical professionals conduct various tests on patients to ensure that their bodies are functioning optimally. One such test is the urine glucose test. This procedure is used to discover the amount of glucose, or sugar, in the blood.
Formally known as a blood glucose test, the urine glucose test involves screening a patient's urine. The patient may be instructed to refrain from eating or drinking prior to the exam. Tests can also be conducted after eating or randomly, depending on the physician's instructions. He or she may also be required to cease taking certain medications temporarily.
After the patient urinates in a specimen collection jar, the sample is sent to a lab for analysis. Glucose is not naturally present within the urine. If detected in the urine, further testing will be required of the patient to determine the cause.
A urine glucose test is also known by many other names. Some of these include blood sugar test, glucosuria test, blood glucose test, fasting blood glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, or fasting blood sugar test. The American Diabetes Association maintains that this exam should be conducted twice in order to be certain of the presence of diabetes or pre-diabetes. People with diabetes also require glucose tests to monitor their condition.
Since the invention of simple blood glucose testing, urine glucose tests are rarely ordered alone. It is often conducted within the scope of a routine urinalysis. This usually occurs during a prenatal checkup, a urinary tract screening, or a standard physical. If elevated amounts of glucose are indicated within the urine, a blood glucose test may be ordered.
If a patient exhibits signs of hyperglycemia, a glucose test may be ordered. These symptoms may include blurred vision, fatigue, increased thirst, hunger, anxiety, trembling, infections that heal slowly, confusion, sweating, and increased urination. Patients considered at-risk for diabetes, including those who are overweight or have a family history of the disease, may also require a glucose test.
Other conditions may require a urine glucose test for positive diagnosis. These may include hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, or gestational diabetes. Elevated levels of glucose in the blood may also indicate acute stress, pancreatic cancer, acromegaly, drug use, excessive eating, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism, or chronic renal failure. Certain medications, such as chloral hydrate and estrogen, may cause glucose to be present within the urine as well.
Emergency centers may also conduct a urine glucose test to ascertain the cause of a patient's symptoms, such as fainting or unconsciousness. Glucose tests are non-invasive procedures. These analyses do not present any risks to the patient.