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A lathe is used in woodworking and machining to cut or shape cylindrical material. Modern lathes are usually powered by electricity, but some craftsmen prefer to use a treadle lathe. A treadle lathe is powered by the up and down movement of the craftsman's foot on a pedal. Many craftsmen and home hobbyists prefer the control and sense of accomplishment that comes from building and using their own handmade treadle lathe.
When shaping or cutting with a lathe, the workpiece is mounted onto a spindle. As the spindle rotates, a cutting tool is pressed against the workpiece, shaping or cutting the circumference of the piece to the desired size and shape. Treadle lathes are used to shape anything from spindles for stairway banisters to cylindrical machinery parts.
Lathes can be used to work with metal or wood. A metal lathe tends to work more slowly than a wood lathe and to be tougher, as the material it is working with is harder. A lathe designed for metalwork can be used to shape wood workpieces, but a lathe designed for woodwork may not be strong enough to handle metal.
Archeologists have found evidence of the use of lathes as far back as ancient Egypt, though their use may have started even earlier than that. The first lathes probably derived their spinning motion from a bow. A craftsman would need an assistant to work the bow while he or she used the cutting and shaping tools. This system was less efficient than it could be and was later replaced by the treadle lathe.
The treadle lathe allows all the work to be done by a single craftsman. The power comes from the motion of the foot on a treadle, which turns a wheel, which in turn rotates that spindle. Rotational speed can be controlled by varying the speed of pedaling.
With the advent of electricity, large production operations switched to electric or even computerized lathes that can do their work with little or no human labor. Yet many craftsmen still use treadle lathes in their home workshops. Some chose the treadle lathe because they prefer to work the old-fashioned way using only their own bodies to power their tools. Others value the added control that comes from powering the machine themselves. A treadle lathe can be built by hand out of wood or metal that may already be in the craftsman's shop.