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Therapeutic milieu, sometimes also called milieu therapy or community therapy, is an approach to the treatment of behavioral or psychiatric issues that emphasizes modeling, peer feedback, and personal responsibility in the context of a highly structured environment. It is based on the philosophy that each interaction with others holds the potential for social learning and personal growth, because an individual's psychological difficulties are said to inevitably be expressed in the context of human relationships. This approach to behavioral therapy can occur in residential treatment, as well as day treatment, outpatient groups, and other psychiatric settings.
A therapeutic milieu, which is occasionally termed "life space," is a strengths-based approach that focuses on problem-solving rather than punishment for transgressions. For clients, a therapeutic milieu becomes a safe space in which to learn and practice new skills in human interaction. This nurturing and positive environment can foster trust in the client, who can then begin to recover from psychiatric or behavioral difficulties.
The contained setting of the therapeutic milieu enables both staff and clients to monitor the clients' personal interactions, as well as providing immediate feedback and social support. Staff are trained in de-escalation techniques, such as verbal redirection, that allow clients to regain self-control in the event that dangerous behaviors are manifested within the community. Temporary isolation from others might be used in extreme behavioral circumstances, but punishment or restrictions are generally avoided in favor of positive reinforcement.
Staff members in a multidisciplinary therapeutic milieu team work together to build behavioral treatment plans for each client. They also provide general structure and containment for the therapeutic community in its entirety. The therapeutic milieu staff plays a complex role, combining aspects of group facilitation, enforcing behavioral expectations in a respectful way, and role-modeling appropriate behaviors.
Peer pressure is also used as a behavioral shaping tool in milieu therapy. A client's peers in the therapeutic community can offer feedback on the client's interactional patterns. Clients gain insight and empathy through observation and discussion of others' personal struggles. These insights can then be generalized to the client's life outside of the therapeutic milieu.
This type of therapeutic environment offers a stable, predictable, and respectful community space, often with 24-hour support from staff members, in which residents can work to meet therapeutic goals. Example goals from a therapeutic behavioral plan could include reducing symptoms of a psychiatric disorder, learning skills for independent living, or developing coping skills. The structured activities that comprise a therapeutic milieu can include participation in therapeutic groups and community meetings, in addition to recreational activities.
Milieu therapy as a term was coined by Bruno Bettelheim in 1948. Similar philosophies had begun to arise in institutional treatment centers as early as the 1800s. The concept of therapeutic community arose as an attempt to undermine the development of institutionalization symptoms, such as the loss of the client's ability to operate independently.