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A screw coupler is a device used to mechanically join two separate parts by means of the action of mated screw threads. This type of coupler may be used on solid components such as steel rods and hollow members such as pipes. The screw coupler is one of the simplest of all couplings, yet is capable of effecting a joint of significant strength. Depending on the application specifics, these couplers may be little more than a threaded sleeve used to join two similarly threaded rods or more complex fittings consisting of separate male and female units crimped or soldered onto the ends of pipe lengths. The applications where screw couplers are used are diverse and include building construction, irrigation installations, and braking systems on trains.
In most industrial, agricultural, and domestic environments lengths of tubing, hose or bar stock need to be joined on a regular basis. In some cases, permanent joints made using brazing, welding, or adhesive techniques are suitable for the application at hand. Where non-permanent joints are required, other solutions are required with a wide range of removable couplings seeing regular use. One of the more common types in general use are the screw coupler family of joining devices. These couplers utilize the mechanical power of mated threads to effect tight and secure joints which are easy to disconnect at will.
The simplest type of screw coupler is the threaded sleeve or collar. Consisting of a short length of tubing with an internal thread, this type of screw coupling requires only that the ends of the pipe or bar to be joined be threaded with a similar male thread. The sleeve is then screwed onto the end of one rod or pipe until the pipe has advanced into the sleeve to approximately half its length. The end of the other pipe or rod is then screwed into the other end of of the sleeve until it butts up against the other pipe or rod. This type of screw coupler may be of a plain outer profile or feature a hexagonal sections suitable for tightening with a wrench.
The screw couplers used on high-pressure hoses or pipes are generally a little more complex, typically consisting of two parts, one with a male thread and the other with a corresponding female thread. The individual coupling elements are soldered, brazed, or crimped onto the ends of the piping. The two ends are then brought together and the two halves of the coupler are screwed up tights against one another. Screw couplers may be made of cast iron, stainless steel, or various grades of plastic and often feature internal seal elements such as packings or O-rings. Screw couplers see use in a very wide range of applications, which include construction and heavy industry, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and high-pressure hydraulic and pneumatic systems such as train braking lines.