The EPA has established "Safe Disposal Requirements" for appliances containing refrigerants. I'm not able to include the web address here. But, you can find information regarding this under section 608 of the clean air act.
The "dump," or scrape and recycling yard would be responsible for removing the refrigerant, or certifying there's no refrigerant.
Small appliances with a functioning compressor can have a one-shot recovery bag attached. The compressor is used to push the refrigerant into the bag, then you’re done. If the compressor isn't working, the recovery machine is needed, along with a recovery cylinder, hoses, gauge manifold set, and possibly more. These are all the things needed for standard, residential air conditioners too.
Certified technicians who knowingly release refrigerant to the atmosphere can be fined up to $37,500, and lose their certification. This is because they’ve demonstrated their knowledge of the harmfulness of refrigerants to the ozone by passing their 608 certification test(s). Older refrigerants like Freon (also called R-22), which is technically called HCFC-22, all other HCFC refrigerants, and all CFC refrigerants, all are major contributors to ozone depletion. It’s scary just how bad these chemicals are to the ozone. The newer refrigerants most commonly used in the US are called HFC’s. Older appliances can’t use the newer refrigerants, unfortunately. HFC’s don’t deplete the ozone. Good news, right? Not so fast. There’s still the GWP factor. GWP stands for Global Warming Potential. Your most common HFC household refrigerant, R-410a, is 2088 times the effect of carbon dioxide. In cars, your most common refrigerant is R-123 with a GWP of just 76.
So, if you hear a lot of hissing as a tech works on your AC, be sure to ask them what the difference is between acceptable “De minimis” releases of refrigerant and unacceptable. If it sounds like crap, they are probably taking short cuts that may impact the efficiency and life of your AC, on top of knowingly destroying our atmosphere.