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A recursive acronym is an acronym that references itself. This type of ordering of words to form acronyms is done for many different reasons. The commonality between different examples of this type of acronym is that a recursive acronym includes a reference to the object or idea that is constructed by the entire collection of initial letters in the acronym. For example, a common IT acronym, WINE, stands for "WINE Is Not an Emulator." Here, the word representing the entire acronym, WINE, is included in the components of the acronym, and the acronym is said to be recursive or, in other words, "self-referencing."
In order to understand what a recursive acronym is, it’s helpful to understand the meaning of the word, "recursive." Experts describe the meaning of "recursive" as being related to repetition, or the recurrence of a theme or idea. In mathematical applications, recursive often means defining an object in terms of itself. Some like to think of this idea as “nesting” one identical object within another, or as a series of “shells” around a core, which helps to provide a visual representation of recursive phenomena.
Many of the recursive acronyms that are used in the modern age relate to information technology. Various alternative technologies, like operating systems and software applications, can describe themselves in terms of other products or systems. This can cause a recursive acronym situation. Another example of this is the IT acronym GNU, which stands for "GNU is Not Unix."
Sometimes recursive acronyms are constructed because the meaning of the acronym is not especially different from the meaning of the original word. In other cases, these recursive acronyms happen through common use. One example is the phrase, “vehicle identification number,” which also goes by the acronym VIN. Over time, many North Americans and others who use a “VIN" as an identifier for a vehicle have begun to refer to a “VIN number,” where the “N” in VIN also stands for “number.” That repetition constructs the recursive acronym.
In modern times, some people familiar with the use of recursive acronyms have coined the phrase “redundant acronym syndrome” to describe modern use of the recursive acronym, particularly in the IT field. Part of the trend toward recursive acronyms in IT is based on the many separate technologies that go into one greater IT process. There is also a trend in competition between technologies that can cause some recursive acronyms, including the examples cited above, which computer programmers sometimes call “definition by comparison,” where a recursive acronym is set up to say that “( something) is not ( something else).”
In general, recursive acronyms can be confusing. Whether they are predicated on the unique aspects for the defining features of an idea or object, or contrasting that idea or object to another, these complex constructions often challenge interpretation because of the repetition that is involved. Many of those who use information technology lingo frequently have advocated doing away with many of the common acronyms that are used, even coming up with the pejorative term, “alphabet soup,” to describe an excessive amount of complex acronyms that will often confuse a lay audience.