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A powertrain control module (PCM), also known as the engine control unit (ECU) or module (ECM), is an electronic device that regulates many of a vehicle's important functions and has a direct impact on how well the car runs. It takes in information about various systems from sensors and other sources and makes necessary adjustments to optimize performance and efficiency. Some of the functions governed by the powertrain control module include the fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed. It also monitors emissions and other systems and indicates a problem by sending out a signal that activates a warning light.
Frequently called the car's "computer," the powertrain control module is like a car's brain. It takes in information from a variety of sensors that monitor factors including oxygen levels, coolant temperature, and throttle position. The PCM then analyzes the information and makes adjustments when necessary to keep the readings within specified normal ranges, i.e., parameters. This helps the engine operate with the desired performance and efficiency.
This module also oversees several vital functions. One of these is the fuel mixture, which is the ratio of air to gas present in the cylinders for combustion. This ratio needs to be adjusted depending on conditions; more fuel with less air is burned when a car is warming up, for example. Once the engine is warm, the PCM shifts the ratio to use less fuel.
Another function the powertrain control module controls is ignition timing. Ignition timing is the pattern of sparks provided by spark plugs to ignite the fuel air mixture in each cylinder of the engine. This pattern can be adjusted to cycle faster or slower depending on conditions in the engine such as revolutions per minute (RPM) which is how fast the engine is running. The module helps keep the ignition timing in sync with the RPM.
Idle speed is another example powertrain control module operation. The idle speed is how fast the engine operates when the car is not in motion. This speed can depend on many factors such as the temperature of the engine and the amount of work the engine must do, or the load, when the car is still. When other car systems like air conditioning are in use, the PCM can increase idle speed to accommodate the load.
A vital job performed by the powertrain control module is monitoring the overall health of the car. It monitors system conditions including emissions, coolant temperature, and oil level. When a harmful condition occurs, the PCM responds by sending a signal that activates a warning light. It also stores a code that indicates the problem to an auto technician. A code can be retrieved with a tool called a scanner and provides important information for repair purposes.
Ugh. I can still remember when these things first started becoming standard in the 1980s. They often cause more problems than they solved and often seemed to malfunction. Thankfully, technology has progressed to the point where PCMs are a lot more reliable and durable.
Now, if only car manufacturers could figure out how to make emissions sensors better. It's not uncommon to have a "confused" emissions sensor cause a "check engine" light to pop up on a car's control panel and alarm the driver. Usually one only has to unhook the positive terminal on a battery for a few minutes to reset the car's computer and clear up the problem, but that's an annoying process.
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