@Soulfox -- No, because people would riot in the streets if they had to let go of that much money at once. Deductions were put in place so that people wouldn't "feel" their tax burdens so sharply. Those payroll deductions may hurt, but they don't hurt nearly as much as it would to pay thousands of dollars at once.
Besides, what are the chances of people actually saving enough money to meet their tax burdens at the end of the year? What would happen to those people who simply didn't have the money to pay the taxes they owed?
Payroll deductions avoid those problems because, by and large, people who have those deductions overpay their taxes and don't panic every April when taxes are due. In fact, they often get refunds and people love those.