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Most people around the world are familiar with one of the two common types of mouth organs. What may be surprising to some people is the fact that there is more than one type of musical instrument carrying the same name.
Persons in North America tend to think in terms of the mouth organ being commonly referred to as a harmonica. The harmonica is a compact musical instrument, possessing a row of variously tuned brass or bronze reeds. The reeds are secured at one end of the interior tunnel of the instrument, allowing air to pass over and produce sounds through vibration.
It is the presence of the reeds and the way they interrupt the flow of air through the tunnel that produces the range of sounds. With a row of entries to the interior tunnel, the player produces different sounds or tones by placing the mouth over the entries and gently blowing into the passageway. Moving up and down the series of air passages allows the player to create a melody of notes.
Harmonicas have been around since the early 19th century. Many people credit Christian Friederich Ludwig Buschmann of Europe as the inventor of the harmonica in 1821. However, there are other claims in various parts of Great Britain and the United States dating from the same period. Whatever the actual origin, harmonicas quickly caught on and became a favorite among young people.
Relatively easy to play, the mouth organ could be found in rural areas as well as in cities. Over time, the harmonica has come to be a valued instrument in just about every genre of music, from blues and folk to modern country and rock and roll. Even some of the newer genres such as hip-hop have incorporated the use of these instruments into the creation and production of music.
Another form of the mouth organ hails from Asia, composed of a series of bamboo pipes that are cut into various lengths and incorporating the use of free reeds in a common wind chest, these produce a sound that is different from the western mouth organ. There are actually several different bamboo instruments that are refereed to as part of the mouth organ family, such as the lusheng, the khaen, and the sheng. Like the Western harmonica, the Asian types of the mouth organ are considered to be relatively easy to master, and can be found in just about every part of the Asian world.
This instrument owes much of its popularity to the fact that the instrument is easy to carry along, requires very little space and has a capacity for creating pleasing sounds in just about every venue. From young children to accomplished musicians, many people get a smile on their lips when they hear the first musical strains of someone playing a mouth organ.