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Woodworking as a hobby has always enjoyed a degree of popularity, and woodturning is a very important aspect of it. The main tool used in woodturning is a hobby lathe. A lathe is a tool which turns or spins a block of material in place while it is shaped and cut using a variety of specialty tools. Hobby lathes are often used to make such items as table and chair legs, candlesticks, baseball bats, and chess pieces.
The lathe is a tool that has been in use for thousands of years, dating back at least to the ancient Egyptians. In the Middle Ages, pedal-operated lathes replaced hand-turned ones, allowing the craftsman to use both hands to hold and use his tools. During the Industrial Revolution, motorized lathes came into being, allowing turned wood items to be created in much less time. The speed of the motor increased the quality of the finished product as well. Today, commercial lathes are operated by programmable computers, but the hobby lathe is still an essential part of a woodworker’s tool collection.
A basic hobby lathe consists of about six main components. Almost all lathes have a bed, which is a horizontal beam to which all the other parts are attached. At one end of the bed is the headstock, which contains an electric motor and spinning bearings. Attached to the headstock is the spindle, which holds the block in place and turns it.
At the other end of the hobby lathe is the tailstock. It can be adjusted horizontally to any position on the bed, depending on the length of the piece with which the craftsman is working at the time. When a workpiece is mounted between the headstock and tailstock, it is said to be “between centers.” Located in the middle of the bed is the tool rest, which can also be adjusted horizontally. It gives the hobbyist the ability to be very precise with his tools while working.
A hobby lathe is generally designated according to the maximum diameter of the material that can be held by it. For instance, a lathe which is capable of holding a 12-inch (30-cm) diameter workpiece for turning is referred to as a 12-inch (30-cm) lathe. The other dimension that a hobbyist may be concerned with is the maximum length of the material which can be turned by the lathe.
Woodworking lathes are the oldest variety of hobby lathe. However, woodturning is not the only craft for which a lathe is useful. There are also metalworking lathes and glassworking lathes, and even specially designed lathes for fashioning billiard cues, among other types.