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A geotechnical laboratory is a scientific facility dedicated to the testing and study of earth elements, particularly soil and rock. This kind of lab is most commonly associated with civil engineering operations. Urban planning, road building, and erosion control usually depend on analysis of natural compounds that can often only happen in a geotechnical laboratory. Government agencies and militaries often sponsor these labs, either by staffing them on-site or contracting for their services with outside private industries. Some universities also host labs, usually in conjunction with geotechnical training programs.
There are usually two main parts of any geotechnical laboratory: an area for receiving and storing and an area for testing. Laboratory testing can be as simple as a scientist running a basic composite analysis, or as complex as material breakdown, binding, or recreation. The testing portion of the lab usually looks like any science lab would. Machines like atomizers and centrifugal spinners often line the walls, while benches with beakers, burners, and sample isolation trays occupy the center space.
Some labs are multipurpose, which means that they can accommodate a variety of different samples and testing tasks. Others are much more nuanced, often focused on but one specific type of research. A geotechnical laboratory's range is usually dictated by its setting, as well as the expertise of the scientists working there.
Many governments have geotechnical services divisions that help advise urban planners about the feasibility of developing or building in certain areas. Scientists involved in these tasks are often very specialized. They will usually complete soil testing and specimen sampling from proposed sites, but will also analyze the durability and life expectancy of new additions like pavement or the concrete foundations of buildings.
Lab technicians may also work to innovate new, stronger composites. Designing a pavement that resists cracking when frozen may be the task of one geotechnical scientist, while finding solutions for concrete foundations sinking in oversaturated soil may be the undertaking of another. The research and testing for these and other projects happens in a geotechnical laboratory.
Military geotechnical labs often serve similar exploratory purposes. High-level experts within the armed services generally use geotechnical lab space to understand harsh terrains. Personnel in the field will send samples back to the lab, where scientists will test them, break them down, and analyze their core components.
A host of geotechnical companies also provides labs for more industrial use, particularly in the drilling and mining sector. Companies providing oil drilling, water boring, or large-scale excavation work generally rely on internal geotechnical laboratory capabilities to quickly test, identify, and store samples. Engineers in the field often start their work by drilling a small core from the proposed site. Once scientists back in the lab have evaluated the sample's composition, the engineers will have a better idea of whether they want to invest in actually carrying through with exploration and drilling or whether better results could be found elsewhere. Maintaining a library of past samples also helps engineers know what to expect in similar terrain.
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