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What Is a Gas Diffuser?

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  • Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Edited By: Nancy Fann-Im
  • Last Modified Date: 02 November 2016
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A gas diffuser is a device that controls the release of gas to spread it out in a diffused pattern. Devices of this nature are used in sewage treatment, welding, and refining, to name just a few industries. Companies that manufacture them typically offer a range of models for different purposes, including equipment with anti-corrosion coatings and other qualities to make it more useful in harsh environments.

This device attaches to a gas line. When the line is open, the gas must pass through the diffuser to be released. The diffuser breaks it up into bubbles that may be large or small, and can occur at different intervals, depending on the configuration. This encourages wide dispersal by spreading out the gas in a stream of bubbles instead of allowing it to emerge in a single jet.

In the case of sewage treatment, the gas diffuser acts as an aerator. Sewage breaks down more quickly when the microorganisms inside have plenty of oxygen, and a bubbler, as these devices are also known, can distribute oxygen evenly throughout a tank of sewage. The bubbles will float through, allowing organisms to scavenge oxygen, and harmlessly vent through the upper layer of sewage. An operator can control the amount of gas released as well as the texture of the bubbles, from fine to coarse.

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Welders use gas diffusers to control their buffer gases. The diffuser will evenly spread the gas over the project, increasing safety and effectiveness. The welder can change or adjust the diffuser to meet the needs of different projects. It usually withstands heat and corrosion, two potential issues in an area where welding takes place. Refining and other metalworking processes may also require the use of a diffuser to control the release of gas, a particularly important issue when refining involves very narrow margins of tolerance.

Another use for a gas diffuser can be in a valve where the operator wants to prevent problems caused by a rapid pressure differential. The gas diffuses slowly through the valve instead of rushing through to prevent issues like knocking or rapid expansion of gas lines.

Ceramic is a common material for a gas diffuser because it is durable, resistant to corrosion, and known for low conductivity. It is also possible to use filters made from charcoal, as well as metal fittings with a number of nozzles to diffuse the gas in a coarse stream. It is important to keep the gas diffuser clean, as clogs can limit the dispersal of the gas and may create a safety problem. Some soak in fluids for cleaning while others can be scrubbed. Eventually, replacement is necessary for a device that is badly worn or clogged.

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