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What Is a Fixed Partial Denture?

To help a fixed partial denture to last longer, brushing and flossing are required to remove plaque build up.
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  • Written By: Sara Schmidt
  • Edited By: Andrew Jones
  • Last Modified Date: 15 October 2014
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A fixed partial denture is a prosthetic dental restoration, or filling, that is binded permanently to tooth roots, dental implants, or natural teeth. It is used to fill in spans, or gaps, caused by one or more missing teeth. The lay term for a fixed partial denture is "bridge," because its function is to "bridge" the space between teeth.

Cemented to the teeth on either side of the span, or the abutment teeth, fixed dental bridges are not removable by patients. There are a variety of materials used to create the filling, such as porcelain, porcelain fused to metal, or gold. Porcelain used alone is considered the safest material for use.

Different types of fixed partial dentures are available, depending on variants in anchoring to the abutment teeth, as well as methods of fabrication. Fabrication can occur directly in a patient's mouth, through use of composite resin; however, a fixed partial denture is normally made through an indirect method of restoration. Typically, fabrication involves reducing the size of the abutment teeth in order to create room for the restoration material, as well as to maintain the natural alignment, and correct contact with the other surrounding teeth.

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These differences account for different bridge names. If a partial fixed denture is to be supported only on one end, or by a single tooth, it is called a cantilever fixed partial denture. Use of this type of bridge is typically limited. Resin-bonded, or "Maryland bridges," are another option. These cost-effective bridges are usually used when spans occur in the front teeth without bite interference.

Aside from filling in spans, these dentures can be helpful in improving chewing abilities and speech. They may also be able to correct altered bites. Since the fillings prevent facial structure collapse, they may also protect personal appearance by delaying, or preventing, age lines and wrinkles that typically occur when facial structures begin to fall.

With proper care, and maintenance of oral hygiene, a fixed partial denture may last up to eight to ten years, and in some cases longer. This requires regular brushing, flossing and dental visits to control plaque and food buildup. Without these measures, infections that may result in the loss of the prosthetic are more likely to occur. In addition to these common measures, a dentist may require a patient to use floss threaders in order to remove bacteria around the bridge and gums more accurately.

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anon338336
Post 4

Can anyone enumerate the types of partial dentures?

wander
Post 3

@popcorn - The main difference between a fixed partial denture and a dental implant is that with a dental implant a fake tooth is rooted into the jawbone creating a very natural appearance. This is different from how a fixed partial denture is held in place. Often the fixed partial denture requires support from surrounding teeth. The surrounding teeth will be ground down a bit and used as a support for the fixed denture. A special adhesive is used to secure the denture to the real teeth.

There are many that say that dental implants are better because they don't cause the bone loss that partial dentures do.

popcorn
Post 2

What is the difference between a fixed partial denture and a dental implant?

letshearit
Post 1

Once a person has a fixed partial denture in place do they need to use any special cleaner on their teeth? I know with full dentures you have to soak them in a solution over night to get them clean and keep them from staining.

Also, if these partial dentures only last eight to ten years, does that mean the patient has to have new ones fitted at that time and have the old ones surgically removed? That sounds rather painful and like a lot of work. I am curious to know if the new dentures are exactly the same as the old ones, or are they resized every time?

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