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What Is a Ceiling Air Diffuser?

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  • Written By: Lea Miller
  • Edited By: R. Halprin
  • Last Modified Date: 26 August 2016
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A ceiling air diffuser is a channeled cover placed over an air conditioning distribution duct in the ceiling of a room. The channels or slots in the diffuser direct air to flow in specific directions, thereby allowing cool air to go exactly where it is needed. A variety of materials and shapes are used in different applications. Diffusers improve the efficiency of air conditioning and help to balance the temperature throughout a room. A reduction in the velocity of air movement yields more comfortable indoor spaces.

The most common ceiling air diffuser uses a pattern of concentric circles or squares. The openings between the slots force air more horizontally from the outer rings and gradually more vertically approaching the center. This balanced design sends cool air in all directions.

The structure of the slots can evenly distribute air or direct more of the flow to a particular area if that is required. Adjustable diffusers can be set for air patterns from horizontal to directly downwards. A radial diffuser pattern uses vanes similar to a windmill to direct the airflow.

The ceiling air diffuser can be constructed of steel, aluminum, or plastic. The shape can be square, rectangular, or round. Modified designs can be used with drop ceilings. The structure can fit flush to the ceiling or protrude downward, as may be the case in large industrial spaces with high ceilings. Well-designed diffusers maximize air distribution while minimizing noise level.

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When an HVAC contractor installs an air conditioning system, one of the goals is to provide consistent temperature control throughout the structure. Since hot air rises and cooler air drops, air ducts are often placed in the ceiling. The flow of cool air toward the floor creates a circulation that helps to even out the temperature in the whole room. A diffuser assists in this process by directing the airflow in many directions.

Without diffusion, high velocity air can create drafts and cold spots that are uncomfortable for those occupying the room. Air that passes through an effective ceiling air diffuser is split into smaller currents that are less distinguishable to occupants. Balanced air movement can allow for a higher overall room temperature, thereby reducing cooling costs without compromising comfort.

In buildings with large windows and exposure to hot sun, airflow is often directed toward the windows. The intent is to circulate hot, humid air near the windows back toward the return duct where it is pulled into the system to be dried and cooled. A ceiling air diffuser set to force a higher percentage of air toward the windows can produce this result.

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