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A 3G data card is a card or chip designed to be inserted into a laptop or desktop computer to allow access to wireless Internet from a nearby tower broadcasting a 3G signal. Certain cell phones and smartphones have similar cards built in to enable access to cellular data as well as voice-based telephone connectivity. Though 3G networks are still prevalent in some places, they have been largely superseded by 4G and long term evolution (LTE) networks that offer faster, even more reliable connections and transfer rates. The 3G network first came into being in 1998, and at that time was the fastest Internet ever seen. Computers with data cards became popular around that time, and the cards were often advertised as a means of accessing the online realm quickly and reliably from almost anywhere. The cards had a number of limitations, though. The advent of newer, faster networks has rendered many of these cards obsolete today, as their functionality depends on ready access to 3G signals — which are being phased out in many places around the world.
3G technology refers to the third generation in wireless digital network standards. Overall it is an upgrade to previous 2G networks, providing faster download speeds and greater reliability. It offers greater security and a wider range of application as well, such as streaming TV and video conferencing. 3G networking was the most advanced and fastest way to access the Internet until 4G networks were developed in 2008. Technology is still advancing, and every year seems to bring faster, better ways to get online.
Most 3G cards are designed only to work over 3G connections, which means that they may not work well if at all in areas where 3G signals are no longer broadcast. A lot of this depends on location. In very saturated areas, telecommunications companies have often elected to upgrade all of their towers and operating equipment to transition to the newest, fastest network. This often is a good way to provide more consistent results to a high volume of users at once. In more rural or remote areas, though, there isn’t always enough of a base to justify an upgrade, and as a result some regions do still support 3G technology. Data cards will usually still work in these places.
When data cards for the 3G space were first introduced, transportability was often the benefit they were most associated with. With this card, location no longer limited users: they didn’t have to be in a wireless hotspot or in the vicinity of an established network in order to connect. The card also freed the user of bulky equipment, such as Ethernet cables, that must physically plug into modems.
3G data cards wirelessly access the 3G broadband networks established by carriers through interconnecting cellular towers. These towers transmit Internet data across electromagnetic wavelengths, known as spectrum, between devices. Users can download information, check e-mail, visit Web sites, and watch television on their laptops while riding in a car, sitting in an airport, or spending the day on a boat. These cards are often the most useful for people who don't have traditional cable or DSL Internet service at their homes, but who can receive cellular service from nearby towers.
Most wireless carriers sold 3G data cards in their heyday, and carriers are still the source of data cards of more modern speeds today. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, 3G compatibility was usually the fastest and most reliable around, which usually served as a major selling point. The speed and reliability generally vary based on each carrier’s network. Most wireless carriers offer different varieties, often referring to them as 3G PC cards, air cards, and 3G mobile cards. These cards may interface differently with the computer. For example, some may require a PC card slot, while others may use a USB port.
In addition to the initial purchase fee, users also usually need to pay for the data they use, much as they would on a traditional cell phone plan. Most wireless carriers offer plans for their 3G cards that provide tiered levels of data downloading or, generally for a higher price, unlimited Internet access.
3G data cards, while convenient, may have limitations as well. Wireless carriers typically offer varying download speeds for transmitting data. The cards often use a wirelessly broadcast data signal to transmit information, which is dependent on the quality of the towers in use. Cards connecting to older towers using slower spectrum bands may have a harder time transmitting large packets of data, and the same is often true for those connecting to newer towers: 3G data is often deprioritized today, which means that download times are often a lot slower.
The reliability with which a data card connects to the Internet may also be limited by the number of towers within its range. A wireless carrier with few established cellular towers provides a smaller coverage area and less reliable connections than a wireless carrier with a denser tower coverage map. If coverage remains too low, a card may not connect to the Internet at all.