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What Happened on November 8?

  • A German scientist discovered X-rays. (1895) Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen, a German physicist, accidentally discovered the X-ray while testing cathode rays. He noted a glow on a chemically-covered screen while attempting to shine a cathode ray through glass. He called it an "X-ray" because he didn't know what it was.

  • The Civil Works Administration (CWA) was established. (1933) US President Franklin Roosevelt established the organization during the Great Depression as part of the "New Deal." The administration created millions of jobs for unemployed Americans, though most were temporary. In 1934, the CWA was ended because it was costing the government too much money — about $200 million US Dollars per month.

  • Hitler launched his first campaign to seize power in Germany, and failed. (1923) The "Beer-Hall Putsch" was an unsuccessful coup attempt that Hitler launched during a meeting of Bavarian government officials at a beer hall. Hitler came in with armed Nazi soldiers and forced the officials at gunpoint to support his new regime plan. The next day, the officials revoked their coerced support and Hitler was arrested. He was convicted of treason and served nine months of a five-year sentence, during which time he wrote his autobiography, Mein Kampf.

  • The Murder Act 1965 was passed in the United Kingdom. (1965) The act abolished the death penalty in England, replacing it with mandatory life sentences. The act failed to include a few capital offenses, such as high treason The death penalty wasn't completely abolished until 1998 with the passing of the Crime and Disorder Act. The last execution in England, however, took place in 1964.

  • The Louvre opened in Paris. (1793) The Louvre is one of largest museums in the world today and has more visitors each year than any other museum in the world.

  • US President Grover Cleveland became the first US President to be elected to two non-consecutive terms. (1892) President Cleveland defeated incumbent President Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd US President. President Cleveland served as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States.

  • Montana became the 41st US state. (1889) Montana's admission to the Union was part of an omnibus package that included South and North Dakota and Washington state.

  • Britain successfully exploded its first hydrogen bomb. (1957) The test, called "Operation Grapple X," was conducted over Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. It was a bit more powerful than they expected and caused infrastructure damage and destroyed some buildings on the island.

  • The Oxford University library opened to the public. (1602) Today, the Bodleian Library, is one of the largest research libraries in the world and one of the oldest in Europe. It generally operates as a reference library and doesn't allow materials to be removed.

  • The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was created. (1935) The CIO was a labor union organization that operated in the US and Canada. It merged with another union organization in 1955 to establish the AFL-CIO, which is the largest labor organization in the US today and includes international member unions.

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