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Several factors can affect a firefighter’s salary and total compensation — some of which the firefighter has direct control over, while others he or she may have little or no control over. Factors that the firefighter often has a good degree of control over include education, rank and responsibility as well as performance on the job. Other variables of which the firefighter may have little or no control over include unionization, employment status, departmental budgets, legislation, hours worked and the total structure of benefit packages. Total compensation reflected in the firefighter’s salary overall usually depends on all of these factors. Typically, in order to maximize his of her earnings, the firefighter will need to focus on job performance, demonstrating leadership skills and a commitment to continuing education.
Education by far is one of the most crucial factors that will figure into a firefighter’s salary, in particular the base salary. Graduating with a degree in fire science can help boost starting salaries at the trainee level, while often gaining more attention in relation to both pay raises and promotional opportunities. Obtaining a graduate degree in public administration can also lead to administrative positions with higher pay. Firefighters on the ground, however, can continue their education and simultaneously increase their pay by taking various certification courses for which many departments will extend extra pay.
Performance on the job also has a major impact both on qualifying for pay raises and receiving consideration for positions of increased responsibility. Moreover, education itself has a direct reflection on job performance with firefighters having multiple certifications often being called on to handle situations that require such expertise. Increased responsibility within a firefighter's role on the ground and the demonstration of leadership potential is often a deciding factor during performance reviews. Those firefighters demonstrating such qualities and skills usually position themselves to receive the highest pay raises. Though some aspects are not so straightforward.
Unionization can have a deciding impact on a firefighter’s salary, depending on the quality of the union representing the department. Budgetary concerns can also make a difference between liberal pay policies and restrictive compensation. Additionally, some department budgets may only allow for part-time staff, which not only reduces base pay, but may also restrict participation in other compensation schemes like benefit packages. Legislation at both the state level and jurisdictional level can also have a major impact on the total compensation firefighters receive. Overtime policies of the department can also impact a firefighter’s salary, in addition to the hours worked.