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What are Tortoiseshell Cats?

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  • Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Edited By: O. Wallace
  • Last Modified Date: 04 November 2016
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Tortoiseshell cats are cats with coats in which red, black, and cinnamon colorations are all present. They are sometimes referred to as “tri-colors,” referencing the three colors which appear in their coats. When a tortoiseshell also has a great deal of white coloring, it is better known as a “tortoiseshell and white” or “calico” cat. The tortoiseshell coloration can appear in a wide variety of cat breeds, and in an assortment of hair lengths, from short to long.

In addition to the classic red, black, and cinnamon, tortoiseshell cats can also have spots of gray, cream, and other colors in their coats. When the colors are slightly muddy and faded, the cat is known as a “dilute” tortoiseshell. Tortoiseshell can also have coats dominated by gray fur, or they may mingle tabby and tortoiseshell traits, creating a mixture of stripes and bold patches of color. Each tortoiseshell cat is entirely unique, as the coloration pattern is random in nature.

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This unique coloration is due to a genetic happenstance. The alleles or pairs of genes which code for orange and black fur are found on the X-chromosome, and if a cat happens to inherit a set of orange and a set of black alleles, sometimes both colors will manifest, due to a condition called “X-inactivation” in which the dominant orange allele is randomly turned off in certain parts of the body. In addition to affecting hair color, this trait also has an impact on skin color, with tortoiseshell cats having patches of darker and lighter skin which correspond with their coats.

Because the tortoiseshell color scheme requires two X chromosomes, the vast majority of tortoiseshell cats are females. The trait also shows up in males with two X chromosomes, classically in cats with Klinefelter's Syndrome, in which the cat has two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. Male torties, as tortoiseshell cats are affectionately called, are sterile. Females will bear kittens which may be black or orange.

Because tortoiseshell cats are essentially genetic abnormalities, it can be difficult to breed for the tortoiseshell trait. Tortoiseshells have historically been regarded as lucky in some cultures, leading people to attempt to refine the color variation through breeding, but this can be both challenging and frustrating. Some specific cat breeds have “points” or other markings which may have developed through efforts to breed tortoiseshell cats consistently.

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Discuss this Article

anon307798
Post 5

I didn't know there were tortoiseshell males.

anon168003
Post 4

Helene, it's not just you. I have a tortoiseshell cat and strangers completely freak her out. Just about all the other torties I've met have been the same.

But you say the males are the shyest? Weird. I always assumed that this type of cat must be shy because of their sex and not their color. So much for that theory.

helene55
Post 3

@recapitulate, Maybe this is just me, but something else that I have noticed at least among tortoiseshell cats I've met is that many are very shy, especially the males. I wonder if this is something genetic, and if the hair thing is as well, from the strange variation in the X and Y genes.

recapitulate
Post 2

I think one of the other differences between calico and tortoiseshell cats is that many tortoiseshells tend to have medium length to long length hair, while calico cats tend to have shorter hair; while I may have seen tortoiseshell cats with short hair, I do not think I have ever seen a long haired calico cat.

aaaCookie
Post 1

Tortoiseshells are one of my favorite kinds of cats because I love that they can all look very different. Because of the different patching possibilities, no two tortoiseshells can really be confused for one another.

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