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Throughout history and all over the world, there have been a wide variety of penalties for illegal gun possession. These range from fines to the death penalty, although a prison sentence may be the most common penalty of all. Part of the reason illegal gun possession is often treated so harshly is that irresponsible, criminal, and dangerous activities often occur with illegal weapons, and possession is thought to be related to these crimes. Given how variable gun laws are from area to area, it is a good idea to check not only national laws concerning gun possession, but local laws as well.
In many areas, someone must register and obtain a permit in order to own or carry a firearm; otherwise the gun is considered illegal. The penalties for allowing a permit to lapse or for making a mistake with an otherwise registered firearm are often much lighter than those for guns that are entirely illegal and have never been registered, but there is no guarantee that a person will be treated with leniency. It is very important to understand and follow all relevant gun laws precisely.
Punishments for illegal gun possession vary by area, but prison time is common. In some areas, prison time is mandatory no matter the circumstances. The time served can be relatively short, or it may involve a life sentence, and sometimes the prison sentence is combined with fines or other punishments. Monetary fines for illegal gun possession are often extremely high. In some countries, it is possible to be sentenced to death for illegal gun possession.
Like all penalties, punishment for having an illegal firearm is not the same for every person. Usually, the person who decides how to implement the penalty takes into consideration the facts of the case and may offer leniency in certain situations. Leniency, however, should not be expected as a rule. When firearms are highly regulated in an area, this type of crime is often taken very seriously by courts and other officials. Only in extremely unusual cases and cases where the letter but not the spirit of the law was broken can a person reasonably expect leniency.
One very important fact to remember is that gun possession is defined differently depending on the area. While many countries have rules about gun ownership, some countries count holding or using a gun as possession. Even if someone is simply borrowing a gun, that person may be charged with illegal possession. When in doubt, it is best to simply avoid guns altogether until all the appropriate permits have been obtained.
In America, the penalties for illegal gun possession will vary widely depending on the State you are in. Some states, like New York, are much more strict about gun control than other states like Texas.
I don't know how I feel about gun control laws being a states rights issue. Doesn't it make sense to have national guidelines about legal and illegal guns?