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The most common perfume ingredients are essential oils, ethanol, and water, although chemical compounds or fragrance ingredients may also be present. Water and ethanol are used to reduce the strength of the essential oils, the perfume ingredients responsible for the scent of a perfume. Fragrance ingredients may be natural or artificially made, although some reports state that most of these chemical compounds that are produced artificially are common causes of health problems. People should, therefore, consider the adverse effects of these chemical compounds on their health, and choosing products with all-natural perfume ingredients may be a better option for some.
An essential oil is a liquid containing the essence of a plant from where it was extracted. Plant essence is a volatile substance that contains fragrance, thus essential oils may also be termed as volatile oils. Essential oils are extracted through a series of evaporation and condensation processes, collectively known as the distillation process. Strength reduction of essential oils is usually needed and done by mixing with them either ethanol alone or a mixture of ethanol and water. This is called dilution, an essential process in reducing the concentration of the perfume.
Ethanol is a colorless by-product of the chemical breakdown, or fermentation, of starch found in some plants. It is an alcohol called ethyl alcohol, thus it has the ability to vaporize and diffuse quickly just like any other alcohol. This ability enables the perfume to cause a cool, refreshing sensation on the skin and allows the fragrance to disperse in air. With this ingredient, however, people are advised to be more careful because ethanol, when accidentally inhaled, can cause fatigue, incoordination, apathy, and visual and nasal problems. There are, however, a number of perfume brands that contain ethanol, which is why many people opt to self-formulate perfumes without adding ethanol.
Water used in making perfumes is not the ordinary water that comes directly from the faucet, but rather distilled water, which is a product of distillation. This is because water from the faucet may contain foreign matter, or impurities, that could be inadvertently mixed with the other perfume ingredients. Examples of impurities are minerals such as copper and lead. Distillation is a purification process; therefore, distilled water is the purified form of water, which means it does not contain foreign matter that is normally present in tap water or water from the faucet. The quality of the perfume may be affected if impurities are present in it.
Fragrance ingredients are additives that help make perfumes more pleasant smelling. There is, however, some danger in the use of these chemical compounds. Some of these chemicals may induce allergic reactions and birth defects, and some experts advise pregnant women to limit or stop the use of perfumes. The inhalation of these perfume ingredients may also cause asthma, headaches, and mood changes in some, and medical attention should be sought if any of these reactions occur.
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