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What Are the Different Types of Aircraft?

Heavy aircraft, such as commercial airliners, bombers, and cargo planes, are usually flown by two pilots who sit side by side in the cockpit.
Aircraft like the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor are designed to absorb and disperse radio waves rather than bounce them back in a coherent manner to radar receivers.
The term "aircraft" includes hot air balloons.
Crop dusters, which are usually single-engined light aircraft, are used to disperse substances like herbicides and pesticides.
A glider's wings tend to be longer and slimmer than a powered aircraft.
Commercial aircraft carry civilian passengers between set destinations.
The Boeing 747 is an example of a long haul, wide-body commercial jetliner.
The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an example of a lightweight, single-seat jet fighter.
A helicopter is a type of aircraft that uses rotary wings, or rotors, to generate lift and facilitate vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) flight.
Non-rigid dirigibles, which can loiter over areas for extended periods of time, are one type of lighter than air aircraft.
Seaplanes can take off and land in water.
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  • Written By: Felicia Dye
  • Edited By: Heather Bailey
  • Last Modified Date: 06 September 2014
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An aircraft is a vessel designed to move through the air. An airplane is a popular example of this type of vessel but there are many others. Helicopters, airships, and hot air balloons are also examples of different types of aircraft.

An airplane may be one of the most recognizable types of aircraft. These vessels have fixed wings and propellers. Their body styles can greatly vary as there are many types and sizes of airplanes used for numerous reasons. These include seaplanes and jets.

Most airplanes require a runway for take off and landing. Seaplanes are an exception. These flying vessels can take off and land on water. One type, known as a floatplane, has floating structures extending from the bottom of the plane’s body to prevent it from touching the water. Another type, known as a flying boat, tends to have floating devices under the wings because part of the body rests in the water.

People often mistakenly believe that airplanes and jets are separate types of aircraft. A jet is an airplane but is set apart by the fact that it has jet engines. These engines require different fuel than the engines of many other types of airplanes. Jets tend to be preferable aircraft when flying at fast speeds and high altitudes over long distances.

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Gliders are small winged aircraft designed similar to airplanes but with notable differences. The wings of a glider tend to be longer and slimmer than those of an airplane. The cockpit is typically so small that it requires the pilot to be in a reclined position. There may be room for an additional person but it is not likely that more than two people will fit into this type of vessel.

A glider is generally used for recreational or sporting purposes. People use it for gliding or sky sailing. Some of these vessels have engines but others do not. The use of an engine is often to prolong the flying time.

A helicopter is an aircraft whose flight is made possible by rotors on top of the vessel. Unlike a fixed wing vessel, a helicopter does not require a runway or much space to take off and land. This is because it has the ability to move vertically. Another advantage of helicopters is they can hover. One disadvantage, however, is this type of aircraft is generally not suitable for long distances.

An airship is a vessel that is lighter than air. A zeppelin, for example, is an airship whose shape is retained by a rigid structure. A blimp is an airship whose shape is dependent on the inflation gases. These vessels are generally made airborne when they are inflated with gas. Their movements are usually controlled by engines and rudders.

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Languid
Post 3

@roxytalks, claire: Agreed about a powered parachute; that could correctly be called an aircraft, as could a hang glider. But a normal parachute is not an aircraft. It is a device designed to control or cushion a fall through the air. It does not in and of itself "fly".

The term "aircraft" applies to any device used for transport through the medium of air. However, as a general term, it is most often incorrectly used to describe such as a passenger 'plane'. The correct term is, in fact, aeroplane, aero being from ancient Greek 'ero' or air, and plane, also from ancient Greek derived from 'wandering,' hence, 'travelling on air'. This requires a particular shape to the 'wing' or 'aerofoil' also referred to in American English as 'airfoil', which, if you think about is actually a misnomer as the device is not intended to 'foil the air' but to use the air as a lifting device.

The design of an aerofoil is such that where the air meets the leading edge and is split, the air flowing over the top has to travel further than the air which flows underneath. This creates 'lift' because the air travelling over the top is therefore thinner (being the same quantity as that travelling under) because it has to travel further to reach the same destination at the rear of the aerofoil section. Power in one form or another is required to force the aerofoil through the air, but the lift is created by the shape, not the power. Thus a jet airliner is an aircraft or aeroplane, but a balloon is only an aircraft.

And roxy, it is not silly to have read the article and revised your notion. That is how we all learn. Silly would be to maintain a fixed notion regardless of the information around you. That's the sort of thing idiots do.

claire24
Post 2

@roxytalks -- There is actually a type of parachute that has a motor and wheels attached, called a powered parachute. The typical speed of this aircraft is about 25 to 30 miles per hour, and while they can fly at over 18,000 feet, usually they are flown between 500 and 1500 feet. Not your typical parachute, but definitely an aircraft!

roxytalks
Post 1

I always think as aircraft as things with an engine. It seems kind of silly, now that I've read the article. Of course hot air balloons and gliders would still be considered aircraft -- they fly in the air.

I wonder if a parachute would also be considered a type of aircraft. I know all it does it float to the ground, but that's kind of what a glider does too.

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