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The term “guest worker” is a euphemism for workers of foreign origin who come to a country specifically for its job prospects. They run the gamut from highly skilled individuals who are actively recruited to fill positions to illegal migrant laborers who work for shockingly low wages in farm fields. There is a great deal of controversy over guest workers worldwide, as part of a larger discussion of immigration policies. Many people support the creation of specific guest worker programs to regulate the admission and use of guest workers, while others oppose all guest workers, on various grounds.
People have been seeking their fortune in other countries for hundreds of years, and in some cases guest workers have been actively invited to a nation. The United States, for example, heavily recruited immigrants throughout the 19th century, enticing them with promises of homesteads and good jobs in an attempt to improve the American economy. Guest workers have historically flooded from less developed nations to more developed ones, taking advantage of perceived opportunities in the places they migrate to.
In many countries, there are several different ranks of guest workers. Some, for example, are issued some form of permanent residence card which allows them to live and work in the host country as long as they would like to. Others are given temporary visas which specify that they are coming into the country to work. Many more are illegal, taking their chances with deportation in the hopes of raising money to send home or bring back with them, and they work in low-paying service industry jobs as maids, farm hands, and construction workers, regardless as to their skill level.
People who are concerned about workers' rights find guest workers especially troubling. Even when they enter a country legally, they are often exploited. In the United States, for example, several cases of human trafficking have been tied to guest workers legally brought into the country with work visas. These legal workers were unaware of their rights and protections under the law, and they were essentially treated like slaves by their employers, who threatened to deport them if they protested. Illegal workers are in an even more tenuous position, and they often work for minimal pay in dangerous positions.
Advocates of organized guest worker programs argue that guest workers can perform jobs which citizens of a country are not willing to do, and that their skills can be extremely valuable. Opponents disagree, arguing that guest workers are used because they are willing to work in unsafe conditions for minimal wages, and that the desire to bring in guest workers is motivated by a drive to cut costs.