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What Are Corrective Lenses?

Laser eye surgery may reduce the need to wear corrective lenses.
Corrective lenses can be used for farsightedness, making it easier for people to see up close.
Eyeglasses.
An eye exam by an optometrist can help determine the need for corrective lenses.
Some people prefer glasses that will transition into sunglasses when in contact with bright light or sunlight.
An incorrect prescription can cause eye strain and headaches.
Corrective lenses are used to correct vision problems.
A normal eye and one with astigmatism.
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  • Originally Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Revised By: Rachel Catherine Allen
  • Edited By: O. Wallace
  • Last Modified Date: 01 December 2014
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Corrective lenses are glass or plastic lenses worn over, on, or in the eye to help the eye focus so a person can see clearly. There are three main types of corrective lenses: glasses, contacts, and intraocular lenses. An eye care professional such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist can determine whether or not a person needs corrective lenses with a routine eye exam, and the exam can also be used to arrive at a prescription for a specific pair of lenses.

Eyeglasses

Eyeglasses consist of a frame with glass or plastic lenses that sits on the bridge of the nose and is supported by two legs, called temples, that rest on the ears. Glasses come in several varieties, primarily:

Eyeglass lenses are often clear, but can be tinted for aesthetic reasons or for use as sunglasses. Some eyeglasses change opacity when exposed to sunlight, transitioning into sunglasses when the wearer steps outside into bright light.

Other types of eyeglasses include:

All types of glasses need to be cleaned regularly with a microfiber cloth and a cleaning solution or a mild mix of dish soap and lukewarm water. This helps ensure that the wearer can see properly and can also keep the lenses from getting scratched by debris. Glasses should be stored in a hard case when not in use to keep them from getting dirty and to protect them from damage.

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Most eyeglass lenses require a prescription in the United States, but there are mildly corrective non-prescription glasses available for reading, or less commonly, for nearsightedness. Though these glasses are usually cheaper than prescription glasses, they are not tailored to the person wearing them, and in some cases can exacerbate eye problems.

Contact Lenses

Contact lenses are small, round lenses that are placed directly on the eye's surface. Most modern contact lenses are made of plastic or silicone, though older contact lenses were made of glass. Most contacts are almost invisible when worn, except for contacts that are intentionally colored. Some contacts are intentionally tinted or colored so that the wearer can see them more easily if they fall out, or for cosmetic reasons.

Contacts come in:

All types of contacts except for daily use contacts need to be cleaned and stored in a sterile environment when they are not being worn. Caring for contacts is particularly important, since they come into direct contact with the eye. Unclean contacts can encourage or cause problems with the eyes including eye infections, corneal abrasions, and in rare cases, blindness. Some contacts need to be cleaned differently than others, and there are a variety of contact cleansers, including enzymatic cleaners and ultraviolet cleaners, so wearers should always follow the instructions of their ophthalmologist.

In the US, all contacts are prescription-only, even non-focal ones and colored ones. Though some vendors sell contacts to those without a prescription, they are illegal, and should not be bought from.

Intraocular Lenses

Intraocular lenses are actually implanted into the eyeball, sometimes to replace a lens that has been removed or has become unusable due to cataracts or glaucoma, but also simply to correct vision. Most intraocular lenses are monofocal, meaning that wearer may have trouble focusing at distances other than the one that the lens is designed for. They are primarily focused for distance vision, though multifocal intraocular lenses do exist. Intraocular lenses can be placed in about 30 minutes by an experienced ophthalmologist in an outpatient procedure. Recovery time after getting intraocular lenses is usually about two to three weeks.

Since intraocular lenses are not removed, they do not require care once they are in the eye, but during the recovery period after the lens is implanted, the wearer cannot do heavy exercise or things that raise his or her blood pressure.

How Corrective Lenses Work

Corrective lenses work by bending light to move the focal point of the light coming into the eye closer or further away. In a normal eye, the natural lens of the eye bends this light to the right length for it to focus on the retina, the back of the eye, and the eye can focus without help, but some people's eyes bend the light so it focuses before the retina or at a point behind the retina, which makes their natural vision unfocused.

People with myopia, or nearsightedness, have an eye shape that causes the light to focus in front of their retina, so they need lenses that move their focal point further away to make it possible to see things in the distance. Farsighted or hyperopic people have eyes that focus the light at a point behind their retina so they need lenses that bring the focal point closer so that they can see objects close up. The picture below shows a cross-section of light focusing in a normal eye on the top, a farsighted eye in the middle, and a nearsighted eye on the bottom.

The depth of the curve of a corrective lens, the thickness of the lens, and the precise shape of the lens can all be used to change the focal point. Even small changes in the degree of the curve of a lens can make a significant impact to vision. Lenses for those with myopia are convex, shaped like a thin, tall football, while lenses for hyperopia are concave, with the middle part being thinner than the ends.

There are also special types of corrective lenses for those with astigmatism. While those with myopia, or nearsightedness, have longer or egg-shaped eyeballs and those with farsightedness have eyeballs that are shorter than normal, those with an astigmatism have irregularly shaped corneas — not eyeballs — which makes their vision blurred. People with astigmatism need a special type of corrective lens called a toric lens, which bends light more on one part than the other.

The strength of a corrective lens is measured in diopters, which is written in a plus or minus form in a lens prescription. So a lens with a 2.5 diopter measurement for a person who is nearsighted would be written as “-2.5” on his or her prescription or contact lens box. The lenses below are classified according to their diopter, and are used by ophthalmologists during an eye exam to help determine what level of prescription a person needs.

Most people can only distinguish between quarter-diopter changes, so most corrective lens prescriptions are written in quarter-diopter amounts (+1.00, +1.25, +1.50, etc.) In the US, diopter measurements are written in the negative for nearsightedness and in the positive for farsightedness, though this can be the opposite in other countries.

Pros and Cons of Corrective Lenses

Some studies suggest that in those with borderline myopia or hyperopia — particularly children — wearing corrective lenses may lead to dependence on the lenses and may cause their eyesight to worsen, but this has not been conclusively proven. For most people, wearing corrective lenses of an appropriate prescription will not cause their vision to worsen.

Wearing corrective lenses with an incorrect prescription can cause eye strain, headaches, and dizziness, and wearing unsuitable contact lenses, particularly those that do not fit the eye properly, can lead to serious eye problems, including scarring.

Despite this, corrective lenses are valuable for correcting vision, and can be a necessity to drive, do some types of work, read, or for a good quality of life.

Pros and Cons of Specific Types of Lenses

Glasses

Pros:

Cons:

Contacts

Pros:

Cons:

Intraocular lenses

Pros:

Cons:

Alternatives to Corrective Lenses

The most basic alternative to corrective lenses is simply not using them and living with the impaired vision. Other alternatives for correcting vision include:

Additional Resources

Videos

Video 1 — A tutorial on cleaning glasses.

Video 2 — A tutorial on cleaning contact lenses.

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Discuss this Article

SZapper
Post 7

There are so many type of corrective lenses available these days it's hard to choose! Color vision correction lenses that change your eye color and help you see better are even out there.

I haven't tried the color changing variety yet but I think I'm going to request them at my next eye doctor visit. I have brown eyes and I've always been kind of disappointed with them. I think it would be really neat to be able to have blue eyes even temporarily.

I wonder how many of my friends and family will notice the color change?

strawCake
Post 6

@John57 - I started wearing glasses at a young age as well and I had the same experience. The world looks so much different when you can see it clearly. However my joy at being able to see was tempered with regret about wearing glasses. My first pair of glasses wasn't very flattering!

When I got to high school I started wearing vision corrective contact lenses and I was very pleased with the choice. I have a lot of allergies so I wear the daily lenses that are thrown out every night. Since I'm allergic to mold and pollen my eye doctor told me the dailies were a better choice for me.

Unfortunately every box costs about 25 to 30 dollars which works out to be around 50 or 60 dollars for contact lenses each month. Because of this I recently started wearing glasses again about half the time. Luckily the glasses available now are much more stylish than when I was in the second grade!

wander
Post 5

Choosing your frames for corrective lenses can be a lot of fun, but it can also get expensive if you don’t walk into an eyeglasses store with a solid budget. For those looking at a simple frame, you can get some plastic versions for around $20 USD. Of course, there are designer frames, which can run you hundreds of dollars.

On average you should expect to update your corrective lenses prescription every two years and should budget accordingly.

Your health insurance plan may cover all or part of your glasses, so you should make sure to contact them before going shopping for your corrective lenses.

letshearit
Post 4

If you are choosing corrective lenses for the first time you will be probably surprised at the huge selection available, of both frames and lenses. At most shops there can literally be thousands of choices.

For those looking for a top of the line product Nikon produces high quality corrective lenses that offer an amazing clarity. I was actually really surprised that a camera company was one of the top producers of corrective lenses.

Besides the lenses themselves, there are all sorts of coatings you can have added, some to stop reflections, others to transition in the sun.

The variety lenses are staggering, so you should read up before you head out to fill your prescription.

John57
Post 3

I remember the first time I went to the eye doctor and was told that I would have to wear glasses. I had been complaining of headaches in school, so this is one of the first things my parents did, was take me to the eye doctor. I was too young to wear any kind of correction contact lenses, so was wearing glasses at a young age.

It was like a whole new world opened up when I put the glasses on for the first time. I guess I didn't realize how good and clear you really could see.

If you have children that are complaining of headaches or can't see well in school, this is something you may want to have checked out.

SarahSon
Post 2

Being nearsighted for many years, I always had to wear some kind of correction lenses, whether it be glasses or contacts for many years. A few years ago I decided to have laser surgery on my eyes to correct my vision.

After the surgery, I was so amazed that I could see without any kind of corrective lenses. I am quite active outside and have really enjoyed not worrying about wearing contacts when I go skiing and horseback riding especially.

bagley79
Post 1

I have been wearing corrective lenses of some kind since I was 12 years old. First I started out with glasses, then when I was 16 got my first pair of corrective contact lenses. These were hard lenses that are not worn as much today.

I eventually switched to the soft contact lenses because of the price and convenience. The soft lenses are more gentle on the eyes, but I got the best, crisp vision when wearing hard lenses.

I also have glasses to wear on the days that I don't wear my contacts. It gets to be a pain sometimes, but since I have had some kind of correction so long, you get used to it. I am just thankful that I have the contact lenses to wear. I think it would drive me crazy to wear glasses all the time.

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