The fez is a traditional felt cap that is believed to have originated from the city of Fes in Morocco. It has been used as a political symbol by several different countries, both as a symbol of nationalism and as a symbol of rebellion.
During the heyday of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, subjects were encouraged to wear the modern fez. This was intended to help break the customs surrounding status that were reinforced by the more traditional turban.
Eventually, the fez became closely associated with traditional dress in Turkey and was itself banned in 1925 as part of modernizing reforms after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Punishment for wearing or promoting the fez included imprisonment and even death.
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