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How Much Weight can a Standard Elevator Hold?

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  • Originally Written By: E.N. Brown
  • Revised By: C. Mitchell
  • Edited By: Lucy Oppenheimer
  • Last Modified Date: 25 September 2016
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The capacity of a standard elevator can vary somewhat depending on how it was built and where it is used, but in general the range is between 1,000 and 6,000 pounds (about 454 to 2,722 kg). Some of the biggest factors that influence this number are the elevator’s floor dimensions, what it’s made of, and how it is supported. Standard elevators in small residential buildings or in private residences — machines that ascend no more than four or five floors — tend to be the smallest, and as such usually have the lowest limits when it comes to weight. Lifts in taller structures and those that are designed to bring people and materials up skyscrapers are usually built differently and can typically sustain much more as a result. Freight elevators tend to have the most robust capacities. Engineers usually determine the upper limits based on calculations related to the resistance and pull of the system as a whole, and following these limits is very important to overall safety. Overloaded elevators can lose control and function improperly, which can lead to accidents and potentially serious injuries.

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How Limits are Calculated

Weight limits in moving machines like elevators are typically calculated based on a number of different factors. First is the weight of the machine itself; how it is hoisted, which is to say whether it’s using hydraulic lifts, cables, or other machinations, also makes a difference, as does what it’s made of. The stronger the elevator the more it can usually hold, but only to an extent. A very heavy chamber made with reinforced steel or lined with granite can usually hold less since it weighs so much empty. In most cases, the upper weight limits represent the most the chamber can weight at all, passengers and fixed material together, in order to operate in a safe and consistent way.

Differences Based on Building Style

Generally speaking, a standard elevator in a low-rise building can hold anywhere from 2,000 to 2,500 lbs (907 to 1,134 kg). The larger the building, the more capacity it will normally have. In a mid-rise building, for instance, elevators can usually hold more like 3,000 or 4,000 lbs (1,361 - 1,814 kg), and in high-rise buildings, the limit is usually closer to 4,000 lbs. Most of this has to do with the strength and integrity of the machinery needed to life the chamber up high for sustained periods of time. There is naturally more reinforcement in a shaft that ascends 30 floors than in one that hits just 3, for instance.

Why Weight Limits Matter

Statistically, a standard elevator is relatively safe. These machines are supported by steel cables and, even in small structures, these cables alone can usually support a fully loaded elevator car. Cable failure can happen, but they aren’t likely. Falls related to cable failure are more common when the cables are weakened or cut by some force unrelated to internal weight, as happened in 1945 when the cables supporting an elevator in the Empire State Building were severed by bomber airplane.

This is not to say that loading an elevator beyond its capacity doesn’t come with dangers of its own. When the weight load is too much for the system to hold, there are often numerous problems even if the cables technically hold. Doors may not close properly, for instance, as was the case in a 2006 accident at Ohio State University, when an overloaded passenger elevator in a dorm fell between floors and a student was pinned between the building and the machine and ultimately died. The elevator in question was a passenger traction model, and assuming an average weight of 150 lbs (68kg) per student, the elevator may have been nearly 50 percent over its 2,500 lb (1,134 kg) capacity. Investigators blamed the accident on this excess weight.

Safety Regulation and Oversight

Most governments and local authorities have established regulatory bodies to help prevent elevator accidents. Requirements vary from place to place, but routine safety inspections and prominent posting of weight limits tend to be some of the most common requirements. In the United States, floor-area based standards for elevator capacities are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The ASME also stipulates the inside dimensions of an elevator car based on weight capacity and type and size of doors.

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Discuss this Article

anon312264
Post 8

Yesterday we crammed 34 people in an elevator with a max weight of 3,400 lbs. We almost doubled the weight limit. As we started going down from floor 6 to 5, the elevator stopped moving down and bounced. It then slowly started moving down again, and in between floors 5 and 4, it jumped again and stopped. Then it slowly ground down to floor 3 where the doors opened and everybody got off.

myharley
Post 6

If an elevator is over its capacity, will it still function as normal? I would think as each person steps on the elevator there would be some kind of device that would keep track of the weight.

If the elevator reached its capacity, it should not go anywhere until some of the weight was removed. Do they make elevators with these safety precautions? I would think something like this would have prevented an elevator that was overloaded to start moving anyway, and with the door open at that.

It kind of makes me wonder how the elevator safety standards are enforced if the elevator will run even when it is overloaded.

SarahSon
Post 5

Many times when I am staying at a hotel I notice special elevators for the staff. I wonder if these are built to hold more weight or just for the convenience of the staff.

When you see staff coming out of these elevators they usually have a cart or some kind of equipment with them. These elevators look like they are the same size as the regular elevators, so I imagine they are more for convenience than anything else.

golf07
Post 4

When I have been on a crowded elevator I have never given much thought to how much weight it could hold. You are in there for such a short time as people exit the elevator on every floor that I just assume there won't be any problems.

A range of 1000-6000 pounds seems like quite a lot though. The next time I am thinking about stepping into an elevator that already looks full, I just might decide to wait for an empty one.

anon288582
Post 3

Is a 2,000 kg elevator capacity requirement enough to be able to transport vehicles on buildings? What would be the model type specific for this type of elevator needed? It would be great if a dimension can be provided.

anon240680
Post 2

Do you think that four standard elevator can cater 780 residential units in a condominium? Each unit three persons, for a total of 3240 persons.

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