Bamboo is one of the few things I've ever been able to plant successfully. I wanted a natural barrier at the back of my yard, near the alley. There are too many cars using it and I wanted the back of my house to be less visible.
Not only did the bamboo take hold successfully, but it grew like wildfire! I have a beautiful barrier now, but as Scrbblchick noted, I have to cut the bamboo back every fall so it doesn't overrun the whole backyard. That stuff is almost as bad as kudzu! It grows about as quickly, but fortunately, is much easier to control.